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Geographical dynamics and convergence spaces
Paul Routledge and Andrew Cumbers

local union membership and organisation. In a similar vein, recent research in the UK has found that the imposition of local workfare regimes in traditional Labour-run local authorities tend to be more favourable to the participation of trade unions and voluntary sector organisations in policy design and delivery than elsewhere, where business interests are more dominant (Sunley et al., 2005). The politics of scale Political power is unevenly articulated across national space and geographic scale, and social movements mostly operate at the intersection of a series of

in Global justice networks
An overview
Joe Larragy

. This is particularly marked in the terms of Partnership 2000 and the Programme for Prosperity and Fairness – when the Pillar was, arguably, at its zenith. The Partnership 2000 (1996) agreement included almost €1 billion in tax cuts, both meeting business interests and appeasing the trade unions with net wage gains in exchange for moderate gross wage growth. However, social spending was to be raised by €500 million; the Commission on Social Welfare (CSW) recommended minimum rates were finally conceded. The Pillar managed to stave off workfare-­style policies and won

in Asymmetric engagement
Mark Harvey and Norman Geras

one’s labour. We cannot give a detailed empirical account here, but these fiscal and legal frameworks have continuously co-evolved alongside, and in interaction with, the emergent economic organisation of relations of exchange, differentially affecting both the gendering of that compulsion and child labour, as well as the exchange of labour in general. And of course, this politicised compulsion to exchange is still changing to this day, and doing so in radically different ways, even across European economies of labour (for example, ‘workfare’). The dynamics of

in Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism