Modes of reading in Marxist-socialist and post-Marxist-socialist Television drama criticism
aesthetics and political progressiveness in television
drama. For instance, as a Marxist-socialist Trevor Griffiths was
often called on to defend the use of television naturalism within his
screenplays. He did so on the grounds of accessibility to a popular
audience but also asserted that rather than naturalism, which he
defined as un-self-reflexive, he actually employed a type of ‘criticalrealism’, which he placed firmly within a Marxist-socialist literary
tradition (see Griffiths, 1986 and Poole and Wyver, 1984).
As this suggests, the definition of realism and
The origins, characteristics and theoretical foundation of the nineteenth-century French realist, and naturalist tradition
both the painting and literature of the 1830s and across the political
spectrum, realism emerged as a movement which attempted to represent the
shortcomings of the new haut bourgeois hegemony. 21 Far from being the ‘art-form of bourgeois
capitalism’, therefore, it could be argued that this form of realism
developed as an expression of critical anti-bourgeois sentiment. In the
field of literature, for example, a significant form of criticalrealism
articulated by phenomenology, structuralism, poststructuralism, modernists
and postmodernists, systems theory and criticalrealism, can certainly be considered ‘modern’ in historical terms, but in essence their concerns are of a pre-
modern and pre-scientific nature. The following chapters elucidate this critique.
Critical theory situated science within the quest for social and political
rationality. It indicated that science’s normativity –which answers the question ‘what should science do?’ –orients itself in relation to the a priori potential
of society. The latter
2 follows this tradition into the twentieth century, and explores the
influence of the naturalist tradition on early French cinema, covering the
pictorialist naturalist school of the 1920s, the cycles of Zola adaptations
which appeared between 1902 and 1938 and the ‘social realist’
cinema of Renoir. The chapter concludes by returning to the model of
criticalrealism elaborated in Chapter 1 , and by
accounting for Renoir
flowering of important naturalistic art forms, such as, for
example, the documentary film, there was no broad-spectrum
theoretical return to the nineteenth-century naturalist canon, as
exemplified by the ideas and writings of Emile Zola. However,
Lukács’ disparagement of most forms of modernism was
quite another matter, and brought his theory of criticalrealism
Realism (London, 1994), pp. 20–7.
Collier CriticalRealism, pp. 61–8.
R. Bhaskar Plato etc. (London, 1994), pp. 23, 30. A. Sayer Method in Social
Science: A Realist Approach (London, 1992), p. 107.
A. Collier Marx (Oxford, 2004), pp. 144, 36.
K. Marx ‘Theses on Feuerbach’ in The German Ideology, p. 121.
Cf. H. Kaye The British Marxist Historians (London, 1995) which contains
essays on Maurice Dobb, Rodney Hilton, Christopher Hill, Eric Hobsbawm, and
Edward Thompson, and H. Kaye The Education of Desire: Marxists and the
Writing of History (London, 1992) which contains
Cognitive justice, engagement and an ethic of care in learning
Steve Garlick and Julie Matthews
.humanesociety.org/assets/pdfs/farm/animal-agriculture-andclimate.pdf (last accessed 19 June 2013).
Huckle, J. (2004). CriticalRealism: A Philosophical Framework for Higher Education
for Sustainability. In P. B. Corcoran and A. E. J. Wals (eds), Higher Education and the
Challenge of Sustainability: Problematics, Promise and Practice. Dordrecht, Netherlands:
Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Jensen, M. (2002). Fleshing out a Relational Ethics: Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s Contribution
to Ecological Feminism. Doctoral thesis, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.
Jucker, R. (2002). Sustainability? Never Heard of It! Some Basics we Shouldn’t Ignore
autonomy is clearly different from this again. His is a form of criticalrealism when it comes to the question of autonomy. Modernist artists, for instance, really are autonomous in some respects. But this autonomy is also problematic and illusory: not in Adorno’s sense, not because it is compromised by its opposite and the existence of what it rejects – the culture industries in his case. Rather, autonomy is problematic and illusory for Bourdieu because it sublimates itself away from the social world. For Bourdieu, autonomy is always the resultant of a social operation
criticalrealism that would force into the public
eye the issues of state corruption, class exploitation and the
manipulation by wealthy social elements of the poorer classes. An
exponent of criticalrealism in novels like Violence (1979) and
Heroes (1986), Iyayi explores the complex political problems
in contemporary Nigeria, ranging across issues like the reasons for and
consequences of the
pain, I think. It means there is a voice, there
is a colour, which belongs to that artist in particular; and therefore it carries
a certain authority with it; which is, after all, what one works hard to achieve
in theatre – especially if you’re dealing with subject matter which is
unattractive in itself. Also, style is seductive. I think if you have a relationship
with a public which is not based on shared values, which is not criticalrealism, which does not at the outset assume we all share the same values –
which is the case in my work – style is the instrument of