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Modes of reading in Marxist-socialist and post-Marxist-socialist Television drama criticism
Geraldine Harris

aesthetics and political progressiveness in television drama. For instance, as a Marxist-socialist Trevor Griffiths was often called on to defend the use of television naturalism within his screenplays. He did so on the grounds of accessibility to a popular audience but also asserted that rather than naturalism, which he defined as un-self-reflexive, he actually employed a type of ‘critical realism’, which he placed firmly within a Marxist-socialist literary tradition (see Griffiths, 1986 and Poole and Wyver, 1984). As this suggests, the definition of realism and

in Beyond representation
The origins, characteristics and theoretical foundation of the nineteenth-century French realist, and naturalist tradition
Ian Aitken

both the painting and literature of the 1830s and across the political spectrum, realism emerged as a movement which attempted to represent the shortcomings of the new haut bourgeois hegemony. 21 Far from being the ‘art-form of bourgeois capitalism’, therefore, it could be argued that this form of realism developed as an expression of critical anti-bourgeois sentiment. In the field of literature, for example, a significant form of critical realism

in Realist film theory and cinema
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Anastasia Marinopoulou

articulated by phenomenology, structuralism, poststructuralism, modernists and postmodernists, systems theory and critical realism, can certainly be considered ‘modern’ in historical terms, but in essence their concerns are of a pre-​ modern and pre-​scientific nature. The following chapters elucidate this critique. Critical theory situated science within the quest for social and political rationality. It indicated that science’s normativity –​which answers the question ‘what should science do?’ –​orients itself in relation to the a priori potential of society. The latter

in Critical theory and epistemology
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Ian Aitken

2 follows this tradition into the twentieth century, and explores the influence of the naturalist tradition on early French cinema, covering the pictorialist naturalist school of the 1920s, the cycles of Zola adaptations which appeared between 1902 and 1938 and the ‘social realist’ cinema of Renoir. The chapter concludes by returning to the model of critical realism elaborated in Chapter 1 , and by accounting for Renoir

in Realist film theory and cinema
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Ian Aitken

flowering of important naturalistic art forms, such as, for example, the documentary film, there was no broad-spectrum theoretical return to the nineteenth-century naturalist canon, as exemplified by the ideas and writings of Emile Zola. However, Lukács’ disparagement of most forms of modernism was quite another matter, and brought his theory of critical realism into considerable

in Lukácsian film theory and cinema
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Paul Blackledge

Realism (London, 1994), pp. 20–7. Collier Critical Realism, pp. 61–8. R. Bhaskar Plato etc. (London, 1994), pp. 23, 30. A. Sayer Method in Social Science: A Realist Approach (London, 1992), p. 107. A. Collier Marx (Oxford, 2004), pp. 144, 36. K. Marx ‘Theses on Feuerbach’ in The German Ideology, p. 121. Cf. H. Kaye The British Marxist Historians (London, 1995) which contains essays on Maurice Dobb, Rodney Hilton, Christopher Hill, Eric Hobsbawm, and Edward Thompson, and H. Kaye The Education of Desire: Marxists and the Writing of History (London, 1992) which contains

in Reflections on the Marxist theory of history
Cognitive justice, engagement and an ethic of care in learning
Steve Garlick and Julie Matthews (last accessed 19 June 2013). Huckle, J. (2004). Critical Realism: A Philosophical Framework for Higher Education for Sustainability. In P. B. Corcoran and A. E. J. Wals (eds), Higher Education and the Challenge of Sustainability: Problematics, Promise and Practice. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Jensen, M. (2002). Fleshing out a Relational Ethics: Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s Contribution to Ecological Feminism. Doctoral thesis, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN. Jucker, R. (2002). Sustainability? Never Heard of It! Some Basics we Shouldn’t Ignore

in University engagement and environmental sustainability
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Thomas Osborne

autonomy is clearly different from this again. His is a form of critical realism when it comes to the question of autonomy. Modernist artists, for instance, really are autonomous in some respects. But this autonomy is also problematic and illusory: not in Adorno’s sense, not because it is compromised by its opposite and the existence of what it rejects – the culture industries in his case. Rather, autonomy is problematic and illusory for Bourdieu because it sublimates itself away from the social world. For Bourdieu, autonomy is always the resultant of a social operation

in The structure of modern cultural theory
Tim Woods

critical realism that would force into the public eye the issues of state corruption, class exploitation and the manipulation by wealthy social elements of the poorer classes. An exponent of critical realism in novels like Violence (1979) and Heroes (1986), Iyayi explores the complex political problems in contemporary Nigeria, ranging across issues like the reasons for and consequences of the

in African pasts
David Ian Rabey

pain, I think. It means there is a voice, there is a colour, which belongs to that artist in particular; and therefore it carries a certain authority with it; which is, after all, what one works hard to achieve in theatre – especially if you’re dealing with subject matter which is unattractive in itself. Also, style is seductive. I think if you have a relationship with a public which is not based on shared values, which is not critical realism, which does not at the outset assume we all share the same values – which is the case in my work – style is the instrument of

in Howard Barker’s Art of Theatre