This book explores for the first time women’s leading roles in animal protection in nineteenth-century Britain. Victorian women founded pioneering bodies such as the Battersea Dogs’ Home, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and the first anti-vivisection society. They intervened directly to stop abuses, promoted animal welfare, and schooled the young in humane values via the Band of Mercy movement. They also published literature that, through strongly argued polemic or through imaginative storytelling, notably in Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty, showed man’s unjustifiable cruelty to animals. In all these enterprises, they encountered opponents who sought to discredit and thwart their efforts by invoking age-old notions of female ‘sentimentality’ or ‘hysteria’, which supposedly needed to be checked by ‘masculine’ pragmatism, rationality and broadmindedness, especially where men’s field sports were concerned. To counter any public perception of extremism, conservative bodies such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for long excluded women from executive roles, despite their crucial importance as donors and grassroots activists. However, women’s growing opportunities for public work in philanthropic projects and the development of militant feminism, running in parallel with campaigns for the vote, gave them greater boldness in expressing their distinctive view of animal–human relations, in defiance of patriarchy. In analysing all these historic factors, the book unites feminist perspectives, especially constructions of gender, with the fast-developing field of animal–human history.
. 7). What is the justice of the ethicaldemand Hill puts upon his work?
Night and fog it ís then, comrades ( SpSp 88)
In the seventh section of The Mystery of the Charity of Charles Péguy Hill quotes his protagonist: ‘Péguy said / “why do I write of war? | Simply because / I have not been there”’ ( CP p. 192). There is a voice in The Triumph of Love which sees the prominence of the two world wars, the Shoah, and other extremities in Hill’s poetry as ‘obsession’: ‘This is quite dreadful – he’s become obsessed
who suffer the worst forms
of exclusion in contemporary Western societies. His eclecticism is
something I take delight in; and his refusal to treat the ethical and
the sociological as separate realms, thus making his sociology not
only an analytical exercise, but also a series of ethicaldemands on
the readers of his works, is admirable. This ethicaldemand, intrinsic to so much of his work, will perhaps be his greatest legacy.
1 Accessed February 2017.
2 Rorty’s influence on Bauman was particularly pronounced in Legislators
and Interpreters (1987) and
surrounded by representations of flowers which replace the actual ones that overflowed from the site
following his death.80 His photographic image is composed of large and square
tiles of the same size. British geographer Karen Wells has written that she is
sceptical that the memorial can function beyond its ‘recognition of a family’s
tragedy’.81 That is, she writes: ‘Despite the continuing ethicaldemand [from
viewing subjects] of the image of the face [of de Menezes], what is demanded
is now muted and slippery.’82 At the same time, Wells writes that for all its
indeterminacy of ethics lies (Bauman 2012 : 214; Braidotti 2011 : 302;
Dauphinee 2009 : 243). Similarly, for Derrida, it is
in precisely this moment of an ethicaldemand being made that requires a decision
that ethics unfolds (Raffoul 2008 : 273). It is the very
impossibility of knowing the ‘right decision’ that makes ethics
possible and that requires that ethics is considered not in a universalised and
universalising abstract set of rules but with each encounter
‘Churchill’s Funeral’ and ‘De Jure Belli ac Pacis’ (Canaan, 1996)
task, every detail of the weights, rhythms, contexts and histories of the words in which the poet’s subject consist can be registered. The ethicaldemand upon the poem is to use the leisure of this attention to be part of the exploration Rose speaks of, and it is this that gives it the quality of an act. Nevertheless, memorial must seem, although the most compelled, still the most impotent of poetic acts: ‘What shall the poet say, / what words inscribe upon your monument?’ cries Hecuba in Euripides’ Trojan Women . Discussing Hecuba’s lament, Martha Nussbaum dwells
witnessing, I argue, it becomes possible
to rethink and better understand the political and ethicaldemands of
testimonial practices and the multiple modes of witnessing that shape
contemporary approaches to testimonial theatre making.
The ‘era of testimony’: The rise of the
In Testimony: Crises of Witnessing in Literature, Psychoanalysis, and History
(Felman and Laub, 1992), literary theorist Shoshana Felman describes
living in an era that is one ‘precisely defined as the age of testimony’
(Felman, 1992: 5). Published just one year before the first
perhaps quite a radical promise, to become ‘unseeable’. If borders are
intimate, sticky and visible, refusing to be seen appears to offer a powerful
way to contest the domesticating power of the contemporary state.
Eduardo Glissant’s (1997: 189) appeal to a ‘right to opacity’ is useful
to consider here. If dominant modes of visuality are bound to colonial
power, and rest on hierarchies of the human, then Glissant makes a
political and ethicaldemand to be ‘unseeable’ and thus ‘unknowable’
to the modern state and its adjunct authorities – that is, to
It was claimed that both nature and revealed
religion instructed man to treat animals with a benevolence modelled
on that of God himself; but, if so, should this not entail avoidance of
any action that caused them suffering or death? The uncertainty of such
ethicaldemands made kindness to animals an imperfect obligation, as
Erskine had conceded, on a par with the wealthy classes’ voluntary charitable provision for the poor: but it also made cruelty an unfit subject
for legislation. It would be another thirteen years before Windham’s view
was gainsaid, in the very
Self-policing as ethical development in North Manchester
‘Don’t call the police on me…’
— 2010. “Crafting the neoliberal state: workfare, prisonfare, and social insecurity”.
Sociological Forum Vol. 25, pp. 197–220. Oxford: Blackwell.
Williams, Bernard. 1993. Shame and Necessity. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Zigon, Jarrett. 2007. “Moral breakdown and the ethicaldemand a theoretical framework for an anthropology of moralities”. Anthropological Theory 7 (2): 131–150.