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From key personal stakeholder to institutional outcast
Shane Kilcommins, Susan Leahy, Kathleen Moore Walsh, and Eimear Spain

principle of its organisation’ (Habermas, 2010 : 125), both of which helped to promote the sense of ‘civilized association’ and an ‘objectivated’ (Habermas, 2004 : 148) criminal process. From being a cornerstone in the regulation of relations concerning the conflict, victims increasingly found their individual experiences (such a vital currency in the pursuit of justice in the pre-modern era) assimilated into general group will – the public interest. The latter was validated through the institutional architecture of a criminal justice system, whereas the former was

in The victim in the Irish criminal process
Joe Cleary

Catholicism’ may obscure more than it reveals. Do changes of the kind described above actually represent the death of Catholicism in Ireland or rather the unravelling of the Devotional Revolution Catholicism constructed after the Great Famine (1845–​50)? And if that Devotional Revolution Catholicism is now in free fall, might some different version of Catholicism emerge in its place? After all, the Catholicisms of the pre-​modern era, the Counter-​Reformation, the Penal Law and pre-​Famine era, and of the Devotional Revolution period were of quite different character, and

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
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William Blake's Gothic relations
David Baulch

the same time, Jerusalem is one figure for a pervasive and a priori process descriptive of all existence. To appreciate the Gothic in Jerusalem , is only to recognise what we have always been, before, as Blake would have it, the disciplinary regimes of classical and neo-classical thought obscured it. What is revolutionary about the Blakean Gothic's break from the past is also, paradoxically, its return to a pre-modern era that signals

in William Blake's Gothic imagination
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Alison I. Beach, Shannon M.T. Li, and Samuel S. Sutherland

discussion of medieval slavery and unfreedom, see Alice Rio , Slavery After Rome, 500–1100 ( Oxford : Oxford University Press , 2017 ); Reuven Amitai and Christoph Cluse , eds., Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean (c. 1000–1500 ce ) ( Turnhout : Brepols , 2018 ); and Thomas J. Macmaster, ed., A Cultural History of Slavery and Human Trafficking in the Pre-Modern Era (500–1450) , (London: Bloomsbury Academic, forthcoming). 57 On censuales , see Stefan Esders, Die Formierung der Zensualität: Zur kirchlichen Transformation des

in Monastic experience in twelfth-century Germany
Murray Stewart Leith and Duncan Sim

the Scottish case. Attempts to limit Scotland to a particular theoretical model risk losing sight of the importance of aspects of Scotland itself. Certainly, Scotland can be considered to have seen itself as a nation in the pre-modern era (unquestionably the elites of that nation did; there is less evidence about what the masses thought – no one was asking them). Furthermore, a sense of Scottish national identity was not diminished by the Treaty of Union in 1707 and certainly civic Scotland maintained a strong sense of self throughout the next three hundred or more

in Scotland
Julian Gruin

time as others have undergone radical transformation. Frames concerning the relationship between ‘socialist’ ideology and the market economy gave rise to cognitive frames that guided debates within the CCP over institutional design, providing the motivation and generating the normative resources for certain actors to stabilize particular institutional forms and to delegitimize others. The cognitive frames that have underpinned Chinese political economy both in the modern and pre-modern eras generated the ideational basis for the CCP to act simultaneously as the

in Communists constructing capitalism
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A. J. Coates

perspective it is not pacifism but just war theory that appears (hopelessly) contingent: contingent upon a time when the physical and political limits of war made its moral limitation appear feasible. Moral theorists were misled into thinking that war could be subject to moral regulation by the fact that war in a pre-­modern era was, militarily and politically speaking, inclined to be limited. That illusion has been shattered once and for all. Just war theory is not even out of date. Right from the start it misperceived the nature of war, confusing objective or factual

in The ethics of war
Catherine J. Frieman

in the modern and pre-modern eras (or industrial and non-industrial contexts). Anthropologists would argue that this distribution of the self is not a product of post-modernity or late-capitalist power dynamics, but is rather an alternative and widespread form of personhood, though one unrecognized by western philosophical and legal frameworks. Marilyn Strathern ( 1988 ) famously argued that Melanesian personhood is dividual – that is, not bounded by the body but existing across a network – and partible, in that parts of one’s personhood can and frequently are

in An archaeology of innovation
The Dragon’s Trilogy
Karen Fricker

view, because they simulate one of the defining aspects of globalisation, ‘the distanciation or separation of time from space’ (Giddens qtd in Waters 62). In the pre-modern era, the experience of time and space was linked to an individual’s immediate life-world, but through the processes of modernisation and post-modernisation, and the advent of mechanised travel, screen technologies, and digital media, time and space have become disembodied concepts not reliant on direct experience. We can imagine faraway places and times without having been there and can even feel

in Robert Lepage’s original stage productions
Elite women in Caxton’s Book of the Knight of the Tower
Elliot Kendall

, ‘Labouring to Make the Good Wife Good in the journées chrétiennes and Le Menagier de Paris’, Florilegium, 23 (2006), 19–​40. 6 Compare Felicity Riddy’s contention that ‘domesticity as a “state of mind” does not necessarily rest on a distinction between working and residing, or the home and the world, or on a separation of spheres along gender lines’ and that ‘for the pre-​modern era we need a different model’. Felicity Riddy, ‘ “Burgeis” Domesticity in Late-​ Medieval England’, in Maryanne Kowaleski and P. J. P. Goldberg (eds), Medieval Domesticity:  Home, Housing and

in Household knowledges in late-medieval England and France