object rather than subject. The wages of
mental and sexualdeviation from societal norms are revealed to be heavy in
the logic of the film’s denouement.
Deneuve in Repulsion is thus a locus of ambiguities.
The resistance offered by her Polanski-created persona to dominant
ideological norms is elliptical and partial, rather than straightforwardly
readable. If the partial pathologisation of Deneuve in Repulsion led
and 1960s. See NSA, HCC (C456), F1328–F1330, Rene Sawyer; NSA, HCC
(C456), F2158–F2163, Sharley McLean; NSA, HCC (C456), F2088, Diana
Chapman; NSA, HCC (C456), F1918–F1924, Olive Ager; NSA, HCC (C456),
F1359–F1360, Margaret Cranch.
See NSA, HCC (C456), F2109, Cynthia Reid. This group later broke away to
form the lesbian social organisation Kenric – see Chapter 5.
Winner, ‘Homosexuality in women’, p. 219.
Caprio, Female Homosexuality, pp. 60–1; Eustace Chesser, The Human Aspects of SexualDeviation (London: Jarrolds Publishers, 1971), p. 174.
Robert Aldrich, The
relation to overcrowding in the experiments of John Calhoun, examined by Ed Ramsden (Adams and Ramsden, 2011 ; Ramsden, 2011 ; Cantor and Ramsden, 2014 ; Ramsden, 2014 ). 11 Behavioural pathologies in overcrowded rat colonies led to the development of ‘behavioural sinks’, to use Calhoun’s term, where female rats ‘fell short of their maternal functions’, infant mortality increased, and, for the males, ‘behavior disturbances ranged from sexualdeviation to cannibalism and from frenetic overactivity to a pathological withdrawal from which individuals would emerge to
was a primary motivation in the writing of these reviews. In this sense,
the magazine was apparently regarded as a supportive ‘space’ in which
Tomboys and bachelor girls
lesbians could express and share their emotional reactions to negative
stereotyping by the medical profession. Thus, a review of American
psychologist Daniel Cappon’s Toward an Understanding of Homosexuality claimed:
‘The book is an epitome of all the most grotesque clichés about homosexuality.’47 Adopting a different style, a review of Anthony Storr’s SexualDeviation by ‘a woman
of acquisitive crime from her more experienced fellow trainees, but she can learn more of sexualdeviations. Sex,
sport and crime, in that order, form 74% of the main subjects of conversation in boys’ borstals (Leitch) and certainly sex and crime appear to be the
most popular topics among girls.29
While these accounts suggest an increasing tendency to interpret crushes
as sexual and potentially lesbian in the post-war decades, concerns were
exacerbated by attitudes toward the sexuality of older girls and single
woman teachers. In his 1945 work on sex education
equipped to handle the teaching of sex
during the 1970s sex education in schools was increasingly influenced by progressive educational pedagogies.21 For instance Jane Pilcher
has shown how advice contained within the 1977 edition of the handbook
on the teaching of sex education was wholly transformed. For the first time
the importance of educating both boys and girls about the experiences
of the other sex during puberty was emphasised; masturbation, contraception, venereal diseases, ‘sexualdeviations’ (an implicit discussion of
, illustrated by Michael Ebner,17 of forty-four homosexuals,
subsequently sentenced to confino, when directing the police at Catania
in 1939, may have been a consequence of his identification with fascist
theory on sexual ‘deviation’, but may also have been the result of his
personal prejudices, upon which the regime was able to play in order
to fulfil its race policies. Ebner suggests that Molina’s emphasis in a
general report to Rome on the risks posed by homosexuality in Catania
to the ‘health and improvement of the race’ was somewhat contrasted
by rather more mundane