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Stephen Snelders

was a situation again not unlike the experience of the Afro-​Surinamese. Stigmatization, avoidance, and abhorrence were primarily directed at beggars and vagrants with leprosy.41 There is some evidence of a cultural exchange of views on the relationship between food and leprosy between the Afro-​Surinamese and the British Indians. One British Indian leprosy sufferer remembered the advice of family, friends, and family doctors to avoid spicy food as well as fish, duck, and chicken butchered from the market.42 Another British Indian sufferer who had converted to Islam

in Leprosy and colonialism
Open Access (free)
Balancing the self in the twentieth century
Mark Jackson and Martin D. Moore

of health and disease, it also served to structure treatments. Balance helped to configure practices and treatments designed to reduce pain, improve posture and mobility, and promote health by strengthening or restoring bodily and emotional stability. Some therapies, such as yoga, meditation, herbalism and certain forms of massage, originated in Indian, Chinese and Islamic medical cultures that foregrounded the attainment of balance or harmony as a pathway to health. 25 Others, such as Pilates (pioneered by the

in Balancing the self
Memories of practice on the periphery
Julian M. Simpson

into the perspectives of patients that add weight to the views expressed by doctors. In the words of Muhammad Noorul Islam Talukdar, who worked in what he described as the ‘sleepy hollow’ of Bacup, a working-​ class town in Lancashire: There was a lot of deprivation but people were kind to their doctor. Even in rough parts of town, there were no problems walking around in middle of night. It possibly made the bond stronger.38 Edal Banatvala was also based in a working-​class area. He came to Britain in 1929 and became a GP in the East End of London, in Leyton where

in Migrant architects of the NHS
Doctors’ organisations and activist medics
Julian M. Simpson

by the Salford GP S.  A. A.  Gilani who by then was a trainer in general practice.101 More generally, the ODA provided South Asian GPs with access to a parallel and informal system of professional development, which brought general practitioners into contact with other doctors who had migrated from the Indian subcontinent. Muhammad Noorul Islam Talukdar, a GP in Bacup in the north of England recalls that this filled a gap in provision by providing training in a form that South Asian doctors were comfortable with: There was not a clear idea … about progression, of

in Migrant architects of the NHS
The moron as a diseased entity
Gerald V. O’Brien

.H. Haller, Eugenic: Hereditarian Attitudes in American Thought (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1963), p. 120. 62 Rafter, White Trash, p. 17. 63 Kite, ‘The “Pineys”’, p. 10. 64 Fernald, ‘Care of the feeble-­minded’, p. 388. 65 Stoddard, The Revolt against Civilization, p. 233. 66 Sanville, ‘Social legislation in the Keystone State’, p. 667. 67 N. Deutsch, Inventing America’s ‘Worst’ Family: Eugenics, Islam, and the Fall and Rise of the Tribe of Ishmael (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009), pp. 50–1. 68 C.H. Robinson, ‘Toward curbing

in Framing the moron
The moron as an immoral sinner and an object of protection
Gerald V. O’Brien

best humans to breed.149 Like many eugenicists in both the United States and Germany, Nietzschie believed that a new religious tradition would put human breeding in the foreground as a primary human virtue.150 Notes 1 Sections of this chapter were previously published in G.V O’Brien and A. Molinari, ‘Religious metaphors as a justification for eugenic control: An historical analysis’, in D. Schumm and M. Stoltzfus (eds.), Disability in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Sacred Texts, Historical Traditions and Social Analysis (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), pp

in Framing the moron
Bonnie Evans

Lourencao Van Kolck, had replied: ‘Really, autism is a rare disease in our country’. Dr Chakraborty, Professor of Psychiatry at the R. G. Kar Medical College of Calcutta had apparently concurred that cases were also rare in India, and Dr Mohammed Fakr el Islam, who practised widely in the Middle East, had argued that ‘cases of infantile autism are very few in this part of the world

in The metamorphosis of autism