was a situation
again not unlike the experience of the Afro-Surinamese. Stigmatization,
avoidance, and abhorrence were primarily directed at beggars and
vagrants with leprosy.41
There is some evidence of a cultural exchange of views on the relationship between food and leprosy between the Afro-Surinamese and
the British Indians. One British Indian leprosy sufferer remembered
the advice of family, friends, and family doctors to avoid spicy food as
well as fish, duck, and chicken butchered from the market.42 Another
British Indian sufferer who had converted to Islam
of health and disease, it also served to structure treatments. Balance helped to configure practices and treatments designed to reduce pain, improve posture and mobility, and promote health by strengthening or restoring bodily and emotional stability. Some therapies, such as yoga, meditation, herbalism and certain forms of massage, originated in Indian, Chinese and Islamic medical cultures that foregrounded the attainment of balance or harmony as a pathway to health.
Others, such as Pilates (pioneered by the
into the perspectives of patients that add weight to the views expressed
by doctors. In the words of Muhammad Noorul Islam Talukdar, who
worked in what he described as the ‘sleepy hollow’ of Bacup, a working-
class town in Lancashire:
There was a lot of deprivation but people were kind to their doctor.
Even in rough parts of town, there were no problems walking around in
middle of night. It possibly made the bond stronger.38
Edal Banatvala was also based in a working-class area. He came to
Britain in 1929 and became a GP in the East End of London, in Leyton
by the Salford
GP S. A. A. Gilani who by then was a trainer in general practice.101
More generally, the ODA provided South Asian GPs with access to
a parallel and informal system of professional development, which
brought general practitioners into contact with other doctors who had
migrated from the Indian subcontinent. Muhammad Noorul Islam
Talukdar, a GP in Bacup in the north of England recalls that this filled
a gap in provision by providing training in a form that South Asian
doctors were comfortable with:
There was not a clear idea … about progression, of
.H. Haller, Eugenic: Hereditarian Attitudes in American Thought (New
Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1963), p. 120.
62 Rafter, White Trash, p. 17.
63 Kite, ‘The “Pineys”’, p. 10.
64 Fernald, ‘Care of the feeble-minded’, p. 388.
65 Stoddard, The Revolt against Civilization, p. 233.
66 Sanville, ‘Social legislation in the Keystone State’, p. 667.
67 N. Deutsch, Inventing America’s ‘Worst’ Family: Eugenics, Islam, and the Fall and
Rise of the Tribe of Ishmael (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009),
68 C.H. Robinson, ‘Toward curbing
The moron as an immoral sinner and an object of protection
Gerald V. O’Brien
best humans to breed.149 Like many eugenicists in both the United States
and Germany, Nietzschie believed that a new religious tradition would put
human breeding in the foreground as a primary human virtue.150
1 Sections of this chapter were previously published in G.V O’Brien and A. Molinari,
‘Religious metaphors as a justification for eugenic control: An historical analysis’,
in D. Schumm and M. Stoltzfus (eds.), Disability in Judaism, Christianity and
Islam: Sacred Texts, Historical Traditions and Social Analysis (New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2011), pp
Lourencao Van Kolck, had replied: ‘Really, autism is a rare
disease in our country’. Dr Chakraborty, Professor of
Psychiatry at the R. G. Kar Medical College of Calcutta had
apparently concurred that cases were also rare
in India, and Dr Mohammed Fakr el Islam, who practised widely in the
Middle East, had argued that ‘cases of infantile autism are
very few in this part of the world