The focus of this chapter is on the emerging implications of the decision of the United Kingdom to leave the European Union (Brexit) for the lives of migrants on both sides of the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Brexit is likely to reduce the rights and entitlements of future prospective immigrants to Northern Ireland but it is becoming increasingly likely that the impact on many migrants from European Union countries, and in particular those from countries that joined the EU after 2004, may be mostly
Hopes and fears for a united Europe in Britain aft er the Second World War
Lara Feigel and Alisa Miller
adjunct, prettifying society, but was much more integral to politics. For Britain, Europe began as a cultural entity. Now, with Brexit looming, it looks like that might be all that we – the British and those living in the United Kingdom (or whatever remains of it) – will be left with. But that is a big all: an all that still has the power to keep us as Europeans and that the European Union would be wise to focus on as they do their best to survive the nationalism sweeping their constituent nations. Here we would like to look back to the moment when the notion of Europe
-catcher in news reports. This is reflected in headlines from the years leading up to Brexit: ‘We’re gonna have to build the Wall!’ 10 (Wogan, 2007 ); ‘An Iron Curtain Cycle Trail’ (Pyzik, 2014 ), ‘Refugees Cross as Hungary Builds “New Iron Curtain” to Stop Them’ (Thorpe, 2015 ), ‘Russia: Nato Building “New Iron Curtain”’ (BBC, 2016 ); ‘Don’t Give Us an Iron Cliff of Dover to Replace the Iron Curtain’ (Roberts, 2016 ). All these headlines suggest that there is a deeply ingrained symbolism of the Iron Curtain as a political and cultural divider, a trope which the
Them or Us
The arguments for and against ‘Brexit’ have by now been repeated endlessly. Outwardly, it seems to have been all about costs and benefits, about sovereignty and immigration and, of course, border control. How will leaving the European Union profit the country? How will an exit affect the refugee crisis? Will the Calais jungle move to Folkestone, or will a new Iron Curtain keep them on the Continent? It is worth noting that in the British media, and in British discourse in general, the refugee issue is often referred to as a ‘European crisis
unable to change the laws of this country in their own interests’ ( Hansard , vol. 274, col. 551). Later, in the context of the referendum and having been re-issued by Biteback Publishing, AM was widely discussed, as it clearly anticipated Brexit. This chapter explores the novel as a paradigmatic example of how questions of British national identity and sovereignty are negotiated in popular literature.
Set in the near future of 2045, the plot of AM revolves around a manipulated referendum that legitimised the merger of Britain into Europe: Britain has been fully
Imagined communities in the Conservative Party’s discourse on Europe (1997– 2016)
desirable consequence of enlargement by Howard.
2004–16: from enlargement to the Brexit referendum
Nevertheless, Howard asks the PM one year later to ‘confirm that … Britain will continue to support EU enlargement – including sticking to the timetable for Romania and Bulgaria to join, and starting talks on Turkey’s future accession’ (Official Report, 20 June 2005 ; vol. 435, col. 526) after the accession of the ten countries has been implemented. Howard also speaks out against pleading the need for internal reform of EU institutions as justification
Did you ever see a slightly drunk man trying that trick with the tablecloth? He thinks he can whip the cloth off the table with a fast, clean snap, but leave all the crockery perfectly intact. He gives a sharp tug and stands back with a triumphant flourish as the plates and glasses come flying to the ground and shatter all around him.
That’s what Brexit is like. Those who have driven it have successfully pulled the cloth off the table – the underlying fabric of modern Britain has been whipped away with a shocking suddenness.
They stand in triumph, sure
Brexit and its impact on the common European financial space
Gregory W. Fuller
On 23 June 2016, 52 percent of voters in the United Kingdom’s ‘Brexit’ referendum opted for a leap into the dark – with ramifications that are still being discovered some years later. While issues such as immigration, borders, and the role of the European Court of Justice have animated the debate in the UK, many of the most substantial consequences of Brexit – especially for the European Union (EU) itself – have been obscured by the EU’s technical (and technocratic) mode of operation. This chapter assesses the impact of Brexit on the common European financial
‘Brexit’, economic citizenship, and the political perils of neoliberalism
Mark I. Vail
somewhat more diffuse fashion, Brussels and EU institutions. In the process, the economic dislocation generated by the policies of Conservative governments (as well as, in a somewhat softer and more attenuated sense, those of New Labour) undermined economic security and social cohesion while creating pressures for an alternative strategy of political integration for the Tories, which featured a neo-Thatcherite Euroscepticism increasingly focused on Britain’s EU membership. As I discuss in this chapter, Brexit thus represents a cautionary tale, not only for British
This chapter assesses the main vulnerabilities for European (dis)integration in the wake of Brexit, with a focus on the Eastern member states of the European Union (EU). 1 These vulnerabilities include substantial development gaps between the East and the West, and erosion of democratic institutions in some Eastern member states, most notably Hungary and Poland. These concerns were present long before Brexit, but remain critical in the post-Brexit EU. Therefore, rather than a critical juncture in the path of EU (dis)integration, Brexit will