Virtual museums and
The word ‘museum’ for me evokes images of cultural objects in glass cases
that reflect an era which is dead and gone. This has been my experience
visiting most museums in different countries in Oceania. The better-funded
museums in Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand as well as North America
and Europe (including the United Kingdom), on the other hand, appear to
be more vibrant and able to attract tourists and residents in larger numbers.
The Hawaiian Hall and the Pacific Hall of the Bishop Museum in Honolulu
single blocks of granite transported hundreds of miles from Aswan
would have made them very valuable.
Six monolithic granite palmiform columns were excavated by Naville in
1891 from the pronaos of Herakleopolis Magna and sent to museums: the British
‘palmiform’ columns 439
Museum (EA 1123), the Manchester Museum (1780), Bolton Museum and Art
Gallery (1891.14.1/1891.14.2), the South Australian Museum at Adelaide (inventory number not known), the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (91.259), and the
University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (E636
the early American colonists to the complex landscape management and agricultural technologies used by Native North Americans. Bill Gammage ( 2013 ) has made a similar argument for Australia, demonstrating the sophistication of traditional Aboriginal land management prior to colonization and how it shaped the landscape encountered by Europeans. Indeed, Bruce Pascoe ( 2016 ), in an award-winning piece of complex ethnohistory, has argued that Aboriginal Australians did indeed cultivate a wide variety of plant species, but that knowledge of the technologies they used
the early twentieth century, and contexts from the Pacific to Europe to Australia and the Americas. I examine all sides of the innovation process, from why innovations develop and spread, to how innovations are communicated, to why some innovations fail, and why certain groups of people seem particularly predisposed to innovate. In the end, I propose a social model of innovation, applicable not just in studies of the past, but to innovation in the present as well. Since this book is in many ways an excavation of an idea, I have framed it around a quest for knowledge
’s former empires, in a sort of pattern of reverse intellectual colonisation, from the so-called settler colonies of Canada, Aotearoa New Zealand
and Australia, as well as the USA, back to the former imperial centres.
In particular, it seems that national museums in those places – as spaces
dedicated to culture – were among the first government institutions to fully
implement liberal democratic state-sponsored multiculturalism, beginning
in the 1970s and 1980s.10 And if the earliest museums to adopt strongly
multiculturalist policies and administrative structures were
play in the production of art in Aboriginal Australian communities. May ( 2008 , 182) describes initiated elders controlling the production of art in a contemporary art-making community in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory by making sure that young men wanting to become artists understood the cultural protocols that govern the ownership of motifs, techniques, and stories by different clans, as well as monitoring their output to ensure they complied with these. Thus, specialization, or achieving what Maikel Kuijpers ( 2018 , 563) refers to as “virtuoso” skill, could
order to be experienced as relevant.
Two examples of tentative World Heritage sites that I have run into in my work as a historical archaeologist are Viking Monuments and Sites, with cooperation between Denmark, Iceland, Latvia, Norway, and Germany, and The Rise of Systematic Biology, with cooperation between Australia, England, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, and South Africa. The latter example involves botanical gardens and sites from the eighteenth century, places that are linked to the botanist Carl Linnaeus in Sweden ( whc.unesco.org ). At local, regional, or
UK, Australia, the USA, Chile, Greece, Germany and Canada. The
bank also contains some samples from mummies originating in Sudan, South
America and the Canary Islands.
The tissue bank’s records
Occasionally remains cannot be biopsied, as for example in the case of those
now located in the American south-west, where there may be an agreement
with local tribes that all human remains in museum collections will not be sampled; or where the remains are inaccessible due to thick and tight wrappings.
Nevertheless they may still be photographed, X-rayed and recorded, thus
institutional framework of the asylum in secondary literature. Australian historian Lee-Ann Monk argues, for example, that male keepers in Australian asylums in the Victorian period reinforced masculine gender dominance in the asylum, through the authority inherent in their position and their assertion of patient control through physical action. Thus, keepers asserted their masculinity among other keepers, as well as over the patients (Monk 2003 : 70–1). In the same volume on Australian asylums and madness, Dolly MacKinnon includes the activity of keepers and nurses in the
1973, was the US, which had also played a central role in the whole process (cf. Batisse & Bolla 2003 (French): 32, 89; 2005 (English): 29, 85) – as one of the world’s two superpowers at that time, serving as a model for others. In 1974, a further nine countries followed – Egypt (7 February), Iraq (5 March), Bulgaria (7 March), Sudan (6 June), Algeria (24 June), Australia (22 August), Democratic Republic of the Congo (23 September), Nigeria (23 October), and Niger (23 December). By the end of 1974, 10 (7.2 %) of the UN’s then 138 member states had ratified the