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Laww, order, and administration
Carey Fleiner

at the centre of the civil war pretty much threw deference out the window, ignored consensus, and pandered to the popular assemblies. Wars and military glory provided new means to power. Certain generals might snub their patrons and take political office on the strength of military exploits – as Marius, Pompey, and Julius Caesar did. New provincial positions out in the hinterlands opened up new opportunities to exploit the local populace and squeeze out extra taxes to keep for oneself (check out Cicero’s prosecution of Verres, for

in A writer’s guide to Ancient Rome
Victor Skretkowicz

interpretation of Plutarch into the enjoyable styles of erotic romance. By translating in this creative manner, North produces a major contribution to the Renaissance philhellene canon, and assists in Shakespeare’s rhetorical development. Julius Caesar (1599), political identifiers and the rhetorics of erotic romance Nine years before writing

in European erotic romance
Shakespeare’s other (smarter) audience
Steve Sohmer

; astrology and astronomy; the calendar and time-keeping. These select few auditors comprised Harvey’s wiser sort – and perhaps after encountering Shakespeare they were wiser still. There’s a convenient example of Shakespeare writing for a tiny clique in Julius Caesar, the tragedy he purpose-wrote to christen the new Bankside Globe in 1599. Shakespeare composed his Roman tragedy for

in Shakespeare for the wiser sort
Shakespeare’s challenges to performativity
Yan Brailowsky

A lioness hath whelped in the streets, And graves have yawn'd and yielded up their dead; Fierce fiery warriors fight upon the clouds… And ghosts did shriek and squeal about the streets. ( Julius Caesar, 2.2.17–19, 24) 1

in Shakespeare and the supernatural
Victoria Bladen

spectral. In Shakespeare's plays, the monarch's throne is a particularly haunted space. In Richard III (1597), Julius Caesar (1599), Hamlet (1600) and Macbeth (1606), political leaders, or those close to the centres of power, are subject to visitations from ghosts who had held power themselves or been murdered as part of the brutal process of obtaining or maintaining power. Thus, the ghosts not only unsettle, rendering the boundary between the living and the dead porous, but also implicitly challenge monarchs’ positions, undermining assumptions of legitimacy and

in Shakespeare and the supernatural
Kate McLuskie and Kate Rumbold

each of the plays were produced by different international companies at the London Globe theatre; the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) produced a special series of performances that included new international productions; the BBC launched a Shakespeare season that included new films of the second tetralogy of history plays and broadcast the new Royal Shakespeare Company production of Julius Caesar

in Cultural value in twenty-first-century England
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Shakespeare’s voyage to Greece
Richard Wilson

the question with which Antonio dashes Gonzalo’s dreams: ‘What impossible matter will he make easy next?’ [ 2,1,87 ]. So, when Love’s Labour’s Lost turns on whether laughter in face of death ‘cannot be, it is impossible’ [ 5,2,833 ]; The Merchant of Venice whether law says ‘it is impossible’ to coexist [ 3,2,316 ]; Julius Caesar whether ‘It is impossible

in Free Will
The new philosophy in Hamlet
Steve Sohmer

Juliet), others obscure as the Feast of Saint Leonardus ( Twelfth Night). 16 Shakespeare regularly alludes to rituals of the old Church – baptism in Comedy of Errors, shriving and confession in Hamlet, creeping to the cross in Julius Caesar, pilgrimage in All’s Well, and Holy Saturday rituals in Othello. In Hamlet Shakespeare even treats Purgatory

in Shakespeare for the wiser sort
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Gwilym Jones

. Rather than the direct correlation of storm and the supernatural, Shakespeare insists more habitually on staging the human interpretation of the weather. Take, for example, Julius Caesar . As in 1 Henry VI , the meaning of the weather (in addition here to the other ‘prodigies’) is debated: ‘let not men say | “These are their reasons, they are natural” | For I believe they are portentous’, runs Casca

in Shakespeare’s storms
Directing the ‘sensible’
Peter M. Boenisch

stock characters, which they specialised in, but were cast according to who fitted best with the fictional character. The shift in terminology from ‘part’ or ‘role’ to ‘character’ was concomitant. Further, the use of stock scenery recycled according to the type of setting required, was abandoned. Somewhat notoriously, the Meininger furnished their stage with scenery and costumes from Duke George’s own possessions. For Julius Caesar, they accurately recast an antique Roman statue that the Duke had seen in situ as (unlike Shakespeare) he specifically travelled to Rome

in Directing scenes and senses