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Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

Introduction Most observers cannot help but notice that each of the major armed conflicts that occurred during the 1990s and the first decade of the present century – Bosnia, Kosovo, Chechnya, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria – has involved the use of terrorism by one or more of the contestants, at one time or another. Conflicts involving armed non-state actors challenging states and each other have become the main form of warfare thus far in the new millennium. The main participants are insurgents and counterinsurgents. Their conflicts are primarily internal

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

Introduction Despite seventy years of UN programme interventions, the need for global humanitarian assistance has not been greater since the end of the Second World War ( UNHCR, 2016a ). In 2017, more than 201 million people living in 134 countries required humanitarian assistance, with a record 68.5 million people forcibly displaced by violence and conflict ( Development Initiatives, 2018 ; UNHCR, 2017 ). The use of violence and conflict by state and non-state

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

’s official response to the cuts and its acute financial crisis, while acknowledging that other international responses, such as bilateral and multilateral discussions between UNRWA and potential donors and various diplomats, have been ongoing throughout this period. Understandably, given UNRWA’s financial circumstances following the announcement of the cuts, the campaign sought to encourage existing and ‘non-traditional’ state and non-state actors to commit funds to ensure that the rights and needs of Palestinian refugees were met. By examining the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Evidence from Tumaco, Colombia
Jan Boesten and Annette Idler

processes: there is variation in how local civilian populations perceive behaviour of different violent non-state actors that operate in the same generic context (Arjona 2016 ; Gutiérrez Sanín 2008 ; Gutiérrez Sanín and Wood 2014 ; Kalyvas 2006 ; Weinstein 2007 ; Wood 2015 ). Exploring the reasons for this preference provides an intriguing entry point for recognition-based analyses of violent non-state actors. An important focus of recognition-based research has been transitional processes from internal conflict to post-conflict societies and the reintegration of

in Armed non-state actors and the politics of recognition
Antal Berkes

The International Law Commission’s work on the identification of customary international law raised the question whether actors other than States may play a role in the formation or expression of customary international law. Beyond international organisations whose contribution to the formation of customary international law is covered in detail in the Special Rapporteur’s third report, the role of ‘other non-State actors’ such as non-governmental organisations and even individuals was only briefly invoked by the Special Rapporteur. Indeed, scholar works

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law
Open Access (free)
The management of migration between care and control
Pierluigi Musarò

strategies and discursive practices enacted by a wide range of state and non-state actors present the Mediterranean Sea as the setting of a perpetual emergency. European and national political agencies, military authorities, humanitarian organisations, and activists, have been representing migrants crossing borders as a significant problem to be managed in terms of a wider social, cultural and political

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Evolving conflict trends and implications for the recognition of armed non-state actors
Véronique Dudouet

Introduction Armed non-state actors (ANSAs) are active in most contemporary violent conflicts. For instance, the Uppsala Conflict Data Programme found that forty-eight countries were affected by an internal violent conflict between state authorities and one or several ANSAs in 2017 (Pettersson and Eck 2018 ). In some of the most intense ongoing conflicts – from Syria and Iraq to Afghanistan, Somalia and Nigeria – these actors are characterised, especially in media depiction, by their radical religious beliefs rooted in

in Armed non-state actors and the politics of recognition
Thomas Prosser

. Notwithstanding the existence of this scholarship, there is little discussion of the role of labour, or non-state actors in general, in the process of disintegration. Owing to this omission, I assess the role labour might play in European disintegration; this will also be relevant to other non-state actors. As contended above, a distinguishing trait of the labour movements examined in this book is inaction. Despite the existence of substantial European economic integration, which triggered spillover in other policy fields (Niemann and Ioannou, 2015

in European labour movements in crisis
Taking the role of non-governmental organisations in customary international lawmaking seriously
Valentina Azarova

As States and intergovernmental organisations (IGO) face a range of new challenges, non-governmental organisations are playing an increasingly important role in global governance. 1 Non-governmental organisations have led the development of a range of international treaties, triggered the domestication of international norms in a host of states, and documented abusive State and non-State actor practices in the most perilous environments. Non-governmental organisations are commonly referred to as norm entrepreneurs, but a substantial number of actors consider

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law
A Singaporean tale of two ‘essentialisms’
See Seng Tan

‘Singapore’ and, where local epistemic communities are concerned, non-state actors. Yet at the same time, it is just such an idealized desire which, more often than not, gets in the way of thinking outside of a state-centred security discourse and towards a more holistic human-centred one, for the simple reason that the extant debate on the agency of Singaporean security studies

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific