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An introduction
Author: Guy Austin

This book provides an introduction to French film studies. It concentrates on films which have had either a theatrical or video release in Britain, or which are available on video or DVD from France. Most avant-garde film-makers, including Germaine Dulac, were unable to continue in the 1930s, faced with the technical demands and high production costs of the sound film. Exacerbated by the Depression, and above all by the financial collapse of both Gaumont and Pathé, film production fell from 158 features the previous year to only 126 in 1934, and 115 in 1935. While poetic realism was at its height, a talismanic figure in post-war film was faced with a generally lukewarm reception from critics and audiences. Thanks largely to German finance and also to an influx of filmmakers replacing those who had departed, after 1940 French film. If 1968 marked a watershed in French cinema's engagement with politics and history 1974 did the same for representations of sexuality. In that year, pornography entered mainstream French cinema. Although film-making remains male-dominated in France as elsewhere, 'more women have taken an active part in French cinema than in any other national film industry'. A quarter of all French films made in 1981 were polars, and many of those were box-office successes. French fantasy has had a particular national outlet: the bande dessinée. The heritage film often takes its subject or source from the 'culturally respectable classicisms of literature, painting, music'.

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The acoustic neo-avant-gardes between literature and radio
Inge Arteel, Lars Bernaerts, Siebe Bluijs, and Pim Verhulst

-Smith, 2013 ). In 1979 the American avant-garde composer John Cage composed Roaratorio , a radio play for electronic tapes, Irish folk music and voice, based on James Joyce’s Finnegans Wake . In the Netherlands, Lucebert and Bert Schierbeek, experimental poets of the so-called Vijftigers movement, wrote scripts for radio plays. There are numerous examples of neo-avant-garde artists experimenting with radiophonic genres, creating fascinating works of art. In fact, all over Europe and North America we can find examples of such radiophonic experimentation that uses and

in Tuning in to the neo-avant-garde
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Author: Renate Günther

Marguerite Duras embarked on a second career as a film director in the late 1960s; by then was already a well-known and highly acclaimed novelist and playwright. Bearing in mind this dual influence, this book presents an outline of Duras's early life and of her later political preoccupations, highlighting the relationship between these two dimensions and her films. Duras's aim was to transcend the limitations of both literature and cinema by creating an écriture filmique. Working within the 1970s French avant-garde, Marguerite Duras set out to dismantle the mechanisms of mainstream cinema, progressively undermining conventional representation and narrative and replacing them with her own innovative technique. The making of Nathalie Granger in 1972 coincided with the period of intense political activity and lively theoretical debates, which marked the early years of the post-1968 French feminist movement. India Song questions the categories of gender and sexuality constructed by the patriarchal Symbolic order by foregrounding the Imaginary. Agatha mirrors transgressive relationship and quasi-incestuous adolescent relationship, as the film resonates with the off-screen voices of Duras and Yann Andréa who also appears on the image-track where he represents Agatha's anonymous brother. Her work, both in literature and in film, distinguishes itself by its oblique, elusive quality which evokes her protagonists' inner landscape instead of dwelling on the appearances of the external world.

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Leah Modigliani

is lucky, in the evolving art-historical canon. I have understood this problem intellectually through three factors: my training as 2 Engendering an avant-garde a social art historian, my experience as a working artist, and through my identity as an American and Canadian female citizen born in the United States and raised in British Columbia. I have witnessed the remarkable physical transformation of Vancouver; its evolution from a seemingly affordable ‘regional’ city in the 1970s to its current status as one of the most expensive global hubs of finance capital

in Engendering an avant-garde
Representation and the real in the twentieth-century avant-gardes
Liz Tomlin

1 Discourses of resistance: representation and the real in the twentieth-century avant-gardes Before embarking on an investigation of performance practice and theory from the 1990s onwards, it is necessary to take a look back over the twentieth century at the practices and theories that laid the ground for such work and that are still visibly influential in the later period that is the focus of this study. This chapter will argue that the new performance practices that emerged in the 1990s and 2000s are predominantly categorised by artists and scholars as

in Acts and apparitions
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A thousand contradictions
Marc James Léger

university in Indiana that teaches courses in ‘social entrepreneurship.’ If the neo-avant gardes were sublated by the culture industry, social aesthetics are embedded in neoliberalism’s precarisation of life and labour. This process of recuperation is most evident in relational aesthetics, with its transformation of the relations between people into relations between people as art things. It is less obvious, however, in the case of art actions that are organised by leftist activists who know all too well what they are up against. The challenge for socially engaged art, as

in Vanguardia
Apollinaire in Freddy de Vree’s multilingual radiophonic composition A Pollen in the Air
Lars Bernaerts

Lars Bernaerts In the study of the neo-avant-garde, the notion of institutions is a crucial one. Peter Bürger considers ‘the attack on the institution of art and the revolutionizing of life’ (Bürger, 2010 : 696) as the core of the avant-garde: ‘The unification of art and life intended by the avant-garde can only be achieved if it succeeds in liberating aesthetic potential from the institutional constraints which block its social effectiveness’ (Bürger, 2010 : 696). In the neo-avant-garde, however, the historical avant-garde is itself institutionalised

in Tuning in to the neo-avant-garde
The conceptual horizons of the avant-garde in Armenia
Angela Harutyunyan

Between the ideal and a hard place 1 Between the ideal and a hard place: the conceptual horizons of the avant-garde in Armenia Art as the avant-garde of the contemporary This chapter interrogates the historical relationship between ‘contemporary art’ and the ‘avant-garde’ from the perspective of late Soviet and post-Soviet cultural discourses. Further, the chapter defines one of the key conceptual figures of the book, the concept of the ideal in a historical materialist understanding. From a historical materialist perspective, concepts do not precede or even

in The political aesthetics of the Armenian avant-garde
William Marx

-Fournier’s Le Grand Meaulnes , Paul Géraldy’s Toi et moi and Maurice Barrès’ La Colline inspirée , which cannot in any way be described as examples of progressive art. What are we supposed to do with such a heterogeneous landscape? The history of art and literature is not just about going forward: what about those who not only are left behind, but choose to go backwards and sometimes do so willingly? There is a whole world hidden behind the luscious front window of avant-gardes, and we should be able to inspect that back room of history. However, we will never be able to

in 1913: The year of French modernism
Caryl Churchill’s Identical Twins as neo-avant-garde (radio) drama
Pim Verhulst

Pim Verhulst (Late) modernism, the (neo-)avant-garde and postdramatic theatre During the period of ‘high modernism’, traditionally placed before the Second World War, literary innovation in Britain is typically perceived to have been driven by poetry and prose, not so much by drama. As Peter Childs observes in his Routledge introduction to modernism, ‘it is fair to say that Modernism had less impact on writing for the theatre in Britain than on fiction and poetry’ ( 2017 : 110). In The Cambridge Companion to Modernism , Christopher Innes even

in Tuning in to the neo-avant-garde