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Antigoni Memou

photographer, in this case, becomes an integral part of the crowd, following the demonstration and being subjected to the police’s tear gas. The small 35mm camera, the available light and lack of digital manipulation of the colours cast by the street lights resulted in photographs of low technical qualities, a new way of employing a ‘strategy of de-skilling’ as central to his critical realism.22 Sternfeld employs a similar anti-photojournalistic mode, not as much as in the technical features, in which he obviously takes a different strand from Sekula, but in his approach to

in Photography and social movements
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Jonathan Bignell

critical realism and aesthetic modernism. Critics’ responses to Beckett’s work in the 1970s, for example, reflected the critical debate of the time over the politics of naturalistic versus avant-garde form. British television drama from the 1960s onwards has moved away from theatricality and Modernist experimentation towards elaborations of cinematic naturalism. This latter form was seen as relevant, contemporary and politically progressive. Beckett’s television plays are situated within a complex dialectic of critical discourses around the aesthetics and politics of

in Beckett on screen
A Deweyan vision of democracy and social research 
Malcolm P. Cutchin

and faculty mentors, I read essential works in critical realism, Marxism, poststructuralism, postmodernism, etc. I took it for granted that theory and philosophy were important and helped me to view and think about the world in new and useful ways, and I fully expected that I would be using social theory in my own inquiries. At the same time, I had some gnawing reservations about the theorists we were reading; to wit, their arguments appeared to me as too detached from the active experience of everyday life and/or they said little beyond the critiques or

in The power of pragmatism
Dave Rolinson

that its ‘sensationalism’ undermined ‘the truth’ implied by its ‘tone of moral outrage’, Clarke moves away from the apparent passivity of observational technique to the participatory rhetoric of Steadicam, a shift which brings to mind the distinction which Georg Lukács (1973) made in literature between ‘naturalism’ and ‘critical realism’. Lukács compared the depictions of horse races by Tolstoy and Zola to argue that naturalism describes events from the standpoint of an observer – the experimental naturalism of Zola which, as I have argued, compares with the

in Alan Clarke
Leah Modigliani

, or the relation that such images have to the historical, geographical, or cultural place of their origin – Vancouver.54 This has helped to fuel an incomplete discourse about Wall’s work and Vancouver photo-conceptualism in general outside of Vancouver. Introducing landscape and the logic of elimination Because the critical realism of Wall’s photographs emerged out of the history of conceptual art (and as discussed later in detail, were self-consciously created in opposition to regional painting) they function as nodes of multiple physical, discursive, and economic

in Engendering an avant-garde
On Regie, realism and political critique
Peter M. Boenisch

comparisons with erotic attraction (to goods and money), sexual exploitation and prostitution – a basic conceit of his Maria Braun, too. At the same time, Fassbinder’s films are extremely stylised and never deny that what we see is staged and performed; a characteristic trait of his work since his beginnings in theatre. Aesthetically, Fassbinder’s excessive realism seems more akin to Castorf ’s stage aesthetics discussed above. In its difference, Ostermeier’s stage version therefore outlines his own distinct approach to a critical realism even more clearly. His production

in Directing scenes and senses
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Diasporic subjectivities and ‘race relations’ dramas (Supply and Demand, The Bill, Second Generation)
Geraldine Harris

series such as Prime Suspect and The Governor show many of the characteristics of the type of critical realism discussed by Nelson, which ‘shakes, if not actually breaks, the realist frame’ (Nelson, 1997: 120). They also tend to be structured around parallels, contradictions and reversals, employing dialectical narrative structures and modes of characterisation to expose contradictions between the personal, the professional and the political, in ways that are never entirely resolved by the closure of the narrative. All of this potentially complicates the process of

in Beyond representation
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Contestation, care and the ‘temper of the country’
Gideon Calder

coming up with constructive visions for the common good. Combined, they amount to a suitably critical realism. I have tried to show that in making a serious fist of achieving a good society there is no avoiding penetrating, critical consideration of questions of value. There are, intriguingly, some who talk as if finding out facts will somehow sort these questions out for themselves. Of course, empirical work in that vein is absolutely vital to progressive causes. But it will never do the whole job, or even most of it. Carys Afoko makes a point reinforced by the recent

in Making social democrats
Tom Woodin

special cases, no different standards. What these young people are writing is literature … and ought to be judged in exactly the same way as we judge all writing. The well-travelled road is the best road with all the old dilemmas unresolved: naturalism versus critical realism, documentary realism versus allegory, and so on.21 The need to appraise could lead to dichotomies of good and bad. As a professional playwright, McGovern, looking back, expressed the view that the value of the Fed lay in the process that allowed working-class people to start writing and to develop

in Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century
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Michael G. Cronin

anthropological, autobiographical and folkloric modes of writing about rural Ireland that had become fashionable in the 1930s. Conceptually, Laverty brought a version of the liberal Catholic marital ideal into her fiction to create a symbolic integration between self-fulfilment and collective good, as well as between tradition and modernity. As we will see, the paradoxes and limitations of Laverty’s politics are manifest in her fiction. Nevertheless, her writing is also compelling because it does not just rely on the literary techniques of critical realism and naturalism, but

in Impure thoughts