for example Bonnie S Anderson and Judith P Zinsser, A History of their
Own (New York, 1988), vol. 2, pp. 213–14.
Claudia Koonz, Mothers in the Fatherland: Women, the Family and Nazi Politics (New York, 1987).
Sybil Milton, ‘Women and the Holocaust: The Case of German and GermanJewish Women’, Carol Rittner and John Roth, Different Voices: Women and
the Holocaust (St Paul: MN, 1993), p. 227.
Michael Unger, ‘The Status and PlightofWomen in the L
´ Ghetto’, Ofer
and Weitzmann, Women in the Holocaust, p. 127.
Ruth Kluger, Landscapes of Memory (London, 2003), p
Hopkinson (2000) and Mollard (2001).
6 Refugees, Racism and Asylum Rights Conference organised in June 2001 by the
Newham Refugees Forum and the University of East London.
7 In 2001, two plays, aiming to dispel certain myths about refugee women, were
performed in London. The first, performed at the Royal Court Theatre was The
Bogus Woman by Kay Adshead (highlighting the plightofwomen in detention in the
UK); the second (about a woman refugee looking for her son in the UK) was
Credible Witness by Timberlake Wertenbaker, performed at Shepherd’s Bush Green
. Indeed, the class-specific rhetoric of wife
beating that developed in the later nineteenth century drew on this tension
for some of its visceral force, driven by various campaigners, including
those supporting calls for harsher punishments and feminists drawing
attention to the plightofwomen in the home. It focused on the apparel
Manliness in Britain, 1760–1900
and instruments of men’s work by alluding to the weapons some men used
to beat their wives. This helped embellish and embed the stereotype of
the working-class wife beater in public discourse and
than one might originally imagine. Equally, in Den Muso , Baara
and Yeelen , there is sympathy for the plightofwomen but they are,
by and large, victims of men with little possibility of altering the
conditions in which they live. Except for Nandi, Cissé does not
envisage new models of behaviour that might allow them to break free from
the constraints within which they live.
Overall, then, Cissé’s work might be said to
describes the cruelties of planters in his anti-slavery novel set in
Saint-Domingue called The Daughter of Adoption (1801).
Godwin reported on the slave trade for the Whig New
Annual Register in the 1780s and 1790s and witnessed the defeat
of Wilberforce’s motion in April 1791 from the visitor’s
gallery of the House of Commons. 33 While Wollstonecraft famously compared the plightofwomen to slaves
Pompey, and her father, Scipio. After fulfilling her
responsibilities to these victims of war, she looks forward to an
honourable suicide. She exemplifies the plightofwomen widowed by
civil war, and the bravery of those who resist tyrannical dictators
to remain in their homes under oppressive regimes. Dedicating
Cornélie to Nicolas d’Angenne, Seigneur de
possibility of two nationalities within a marriage,
thereby allowing women equal status with their husbands. It proposed
that a foreign woman could apply for British naturalisation on marriage to a British husband. Wilkinson catalogued the iniquitous plightofwomen deprived of citizenship, pensions, freedom to travel or right
to redress for desertion. Wilkinson responded sharply to her opponents,
who were claiming to stand up for the ‘greatest institution of all, family
life’, finding the two Lieutenant-Colonels ‘delicious’, being redolent of
Feminism and the women
control’ or were accused of stealing were given the same diagnosis.128
As Matthew Thomson argues, mental deficiency provided a convincing
biological explanation for the plightofwomen in Magdalen and refuge
homes. Their ‘mental deficiency left them with no restraint over their
sexual instincts and unprotected against abuse from men’. It was also
a powerful justification for placing them under the care and control of
refuges and homes.129 Similarly, Rosen suggests the idea of ‘feeblemindedness’ had little to do with mental capacity, but was a useful way of classifying