Comparative Study’, Arab Law Quarterly 2 (1991), 121 and Islamic Studies 30 (1991), 305.
7 See Khaled Abou El Fadl, Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
8 During the formative period of Islamic law (the first three Islamic centuries or the seventh to the tenth centuries AD), the charge of apostasy was typically invoked in cases in which the authority of a state legitimated by religion was challenged by seditious conduct that included collective abdication of the Islamic faith. In the pre-modernera as a
traditionalist wing of the acknowledgement school was
restrained by its traditionalism from accepting modernity completely or
uncritically, and ﬁrst and foremost Adler was a traditionalist. Although
Adler adopted modern attitudes and methods, they did not dislodge his
traditional views. He encouraged Wissenschaft but also wrote pilpul,
and interpreted sacriﬁces symbolically but also looked forward to
carrying them out in practice. In this regard he was the spiritual and
intellectual successor of his father, who combined the old learning of
the pre-modernera with university
‘Gothicism’, ‘historicism’, and the overlap of fictional modes from Thomas Leland to Walter Scott
virtuous manners of the Reader’. 21
The terms by which Longsword was assessed are also intriguingly present in the reviews of The castle of Otranto . Even before Walpole appended the subtitle ‘a Gothic story’ to the second edition of his tale, Otranto was concerned with exploring and representing the Gothic past, both as a barbaric, pre-modernera, and as an important phase in the conception of political liberty and virtue. Accordingly, the novel's reception, in its first and second editions, revolved