MEPs are elected to sit on the NPF, where they can exert some influence. One
survey respondent thus states:
All policy, including European is formulated by the Labour Party’s National Policy
Forum (NPF). All members are encouraged to participate in this process, by submitting proposals and amendments, as well as vote for representatives to sit on the
Forum. The regionalrepresentatives take forward proposals from members in the
[name of Euro-constituency] to the NPF.
Still, some Labour MEPs tried to involve their constituency in EU debates.
For instance, the
areas reliant on this industry.
Local branches raised this issue from the late 1920s following the launch of
the LNU’s Disarmament Campaign. According to the regionalrepresentative
from Kent, dockyard towns needed ‘most careful handling or great antagonism will be aroused’, whilst a branch Secretary from Sheffield, a major centre
of the arms trade, remarked upon how, at meetings addressing the subject
of disarmament, ‘we are constantly reminded of the fact that Sheffield must
suffer from increased unemployment if any serious reduction of armaments
the Ard Fheis with the remainder elected by the Comhairle Ceantairs. However
the motion was not taken and instead an amendment, proposed by Garland,
to expand the Ard Comhairle to 25 with 12 regionalrepresentatives as well as
the President, was passed.
The election to the Ard Comhairle seemed to indicate that those in favour
of changing electoral policy had the support of a majority of the delegates.
Goulding topped the list, followed by Costello, Garland, De Burca and Mac
Stíofáin. Johnston did not put his name forward although he had been reelected to the
19 May 2000.
‘Romania: Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Romania – 2007’.
Gândul, 27 June 2007.
Hotnews, 16 November 2007.
Hotnews, 18 March 2008.
Juan J. Fernandez Alonso, ‘Post-Accession EU Funds for Romania: Issues and
Challenges’, 16 April 2007, www.imf.ro (the author was the IMF’s regionalrepresentative in Romania)/(accessed 15 September 2007).
Thomas Escritt and Stefan Wagstyl, ‘Romanian Boom Rings Economic Alarm
Bells’, Financial Times, 22 November 2007.
Hotnews, 5 November 2007.
Hotnews, 18 March 2008.
Capital (Bucharest), 4 November 2004
, but that the results are more uncertain. A major attempt by the
Northwest Russian federal subject to gain influence in fisheries management was made in the early 1990s. Murmansk, Arkhangelsk and
Karelia established fisheries departments under their regional
administrations in 1993–94 and demanded a say in the quota distribution, then dominated by Sevryba, which, in reality, functioned
as a regionalrepresentative of the State Committee for Fisheries. In
late 1993, the Governor of Murmansk Oblast boasted about having
reached an agreement with the Committee that the
the regionalrepresentative of the Miners’ Welfare Fund, Captain
Mason, to cut costs by organising a united film booking scheme for Halls
and Institutes failed to gain much support.70 Most Institutes were highly
independent, and their members cherished (and indeed protected) that
independence.71 However, while each Institute was self-governing, as far as
film-booking patterns are concerned, similar arrangements were undertaken
elsewhere. The minute books of Tredegar Workmen’s Institute, for example,
reveal that the committee booked films from a mixture of American
on a unified, republican France. A
Europe was imagined where non-Christians, the unemployed, women and
regionalrepresentatives would also have a public voice. In these ways, the
elections contributed to a qualitative transformation of French politics.
The European Parliament elections provided French intellectuals with an
opportunity to wield power and reaffirm their role in the French and
international public debate. As Pierre Bourdieu's case demonstrates, intellectuals
play an important role in French politics: the politics of the street has always
per cent in 1983) and it had become a regional rather than a
national political force. 73 As
Labour’s internal reports from members of the National Executive Committee ( NEC ), parliamentary candidates, leading trade unionists and regionalrepresentatives made clear, its manifesto and its policies in general were frequently
condemned by the voters for their ‘extremism’. 74
Yet the reasons for Labour’s failure went much wider and deeper than
the question of policy alone. The formation and impressive early development
Electoral systems The president of the republic is elected for a
seven-year term of office by an electoral college made up of both chambers
of Parliament and fifty-eight regionalrepresentatives.
New electoral systems for elections to
the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate were introduced in 1993. These
symbolised the reform process in Italy and were hailed by some as the start
of a new Republic. The Chamber of Deputies has 630
provided for regional programs, the relationship between the regions and
Head Office were not unproblematic. At the beginning of the war, regionalrepresentatives showered Head Office with memoranda protesting the lack
of regional representation in the programs,52 and intermittently continued to
complain about a lack of adequate representation in the Home Service.53 As
late as 1943 Percy Edgar, the Midland Regional Director, who had been with
the BBC since the beginning, called for more “regional-mindedness” in the
program departments in London, complaining “that