female lunatic asylums, and has a few pages on the development of
women’s history, but not much else. Sex seems to have played no
role in soldiersettlements, and is little covered in studies of
migrants. Sex is mostly invisible in a work on colonial exhibitions. Sex
is also absent in the Arctic, at least in a Studies in Imperialism book
on the polar region; perhaps the climate chilled sexual heat. 61
she concluded her letter by recommending New Brunswick to others who were prepared to take
advice and knuckle down to the hardships of pioneering.
Official colonization schemes in Canada were well covered in the
agricultural press. The extension of Canadian soldiersettlement to civilians was described
by the Press & Journal in 1923 as a scheme which offered ‘no get-rich-quick
promise’ but ‘solid, if apparently slow, advantages’ to those prepared to
work hard under the auspices of disinterested
While the Royal Commission’s report circulated
government departments, the new Secretary of State for the Colonies,
Walter Long, appointed a further committee to recommend a framework for
the assistance of soldiersettlement after the war and for the
constitution of a central authority to supervise this. Lord Tennyson
agreed to chair this Empire Settlement Committee, which included
(Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association with the Government of
Canada’s Multicultural Programme, 1991).
See Kent Fedorowich, Unfit for Heroes:
Reconstruction and SoldierSettlement in the Empire Between the
Wars (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995 ).
soldiersettlement schemes and the private desires of many to escape
from a drab postwar world. Liverpool inevitably played its full part in
this. Moreover, the fabric of the city declined through inevitable
neglect and was inevitably damaged by bombing and the exigencies of war.
Liverpool, war and empire could well be a subject for an entire further
Another great need is research on the role of the
regulations, might well opt for Canada, from where some of them
subsequently entered the United States illegally.
At the same time as America was putting selective bolts
on its golden door, the British government was liaising with the
dominions to offer significant sponsorship to migrants, initially to
war veterans and their dependents through the SoldierSettlement
Scheme of 1919–22 and
years left. Failure was less exception than the norm. 61 During this intermediate
phase, meanwhile, the increasing challenge of deviant Europeans was met
with increasingly sophisticated systems of social control.
It was in the aftermath of the First World War that
serious state-sponsored attempts were begun to transplant a British
settler community to East Africa. The Soldier-Settlement
unemployed.) Moreover, as in the past, agricultural settlement failed.
One of Milner’s schemes was post-war soldiersettlement. This was
supported by the right-wing Imperial South Africa Association in
Britain, various politicians and Rand mining interests. The Scottish
dimension was provided by Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat (1871–1933),
who had raised the Lovat Scouts from estate workers and others near
example of the range of forces, other than the
General Police and Gold Coast Regiment, available to the colonial
authorities should the need arise. First of all there was a military
reserve of exsoldiers scattered across the colony, some in soldiersettlements, who could be mobilized at relatively short notice. A
territorial defence force existed with two sections – one a
European reserve with special
British emigration and the construction of Anglo-Canadian privilege
See Chilton, Agents of Empire ; K.
Fedorowich, Unfit for Heroes: Reconstruction and SoldierSettlement in the Empire between the Wars (Manchester,
1995); D. Goutor, Guarding the Gates: The Canadian Labour
Movement and Immigration, 1872–1934 (Vancouver