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Ian Goodyer

RAR’s graphic style, Red Saunders cited the following inspirations: ‘Soviet constructivism and American pop art, linked in with European modernism.’43 RAR’s concern, however, was not simply to revive certain styles, but to establish a productive relationship between political and cultural activities. As Roger Huddle explains, ‘the major thing about modernity in the twentieth century was, when it was linked to a social struggle, it did its best work.’44 This point is relevant in two ways. Firstly, the artistic products of previous high points in struggle are, in

in Crisis music
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Peter Beilharz

difference between us, and our biographies. When Bauman was in his teens he had to deal with Hitler and Stalin. There was not much time for grousing around. For my generation, in Australia, there was a distant war going on, in Vietnam, but otherwise America was jazz, blues, rock and Hollywood, as well as race, whitey on the Moon, Dr King and Black Power, and Big Brother in Vietnam. Bauman and I were also worlds apart. He was a child of that turbulent period between the wars. He was East Central European, and he would always remain a Pole and a Jew. The fact is worth

in Intimacy in postmodern times
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Labour, class, environments and anthropology
Penny McCall Howard

. An understanding of the processes of production and reproduction can provide considerable insight into social organisation, technologies, and environments. In addition to the reification promoted by commodity exchange, widespread but static understandings of ‘labour’ and ‘class’ have tied them to particular forms of work (especially factory work). As the dominant forms of work in Europe and North America have changed, some have dismissed the usefulness of a labour or class analysis altogether (Kasmir and Carbonella 2008: 5; Smith 1999: 172). This is despite the

in Environment, labour and capitalism at sea
Michael Rush

to identify four ‘fronts’ of the attack on patriarchy; first, feminism pioneered in Scandinavia and advanced in the Anglophile nations; second, socialism, communism and egalitarian cultural modernism; third, secular liberalism; and, fourth, nationalism, which engendered secular concerns with demography and gender relations (2004:79–130). Eastern European feminism was also at the vanguard of global feminism. Therborn’s account offered a historical explanation of the politicisation of patriarchy, and the epochal social choices of civic society and governments to

in Between two worlds of father politics
Lenore T. Ealy

participate in intergenerational traditions of nurture, education, and socialization. Despite our necessary reliance on received patterns of ordering our ways of life, the transition from the medieval to the modern world saw people raise challenges on an unprecedented scale to a wide variety of particular traditions and to the authority of tradition itself. We are familiar with these dramas that played out across the institutional landscape of early modern Europe. Protestant Reformers challenged the tradition and authority of papal government in the Church. In promulgating

in The calling of social thought
Women as citizens
Shailja Sharma

current. Though not identical, there is a remarkable symmetry between the views of European corporations and imperia in early modernism and today. The attitude that regards veiling as either hostile, submissive, traditional or unmodern, in other words that regards gender issues as a cultural difference that needs to be eradicated, is not contemporary or an anomaly. It is rooted in historical legal and epistemological categories from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that construct European civilization as both foundational and normative. These categories and

in Postcolonial minorities in Britain and France
Martin Dowling

difference of Irish music 189 Europe, the harp itself was paradoxically transformed into a symbol of monarchical rule, of the incorporation of the Irish polity into a large kingdom-wide structure and, eventually, into the British Empire. Irish musical excellence thus evolved from a marker of otherness (the curiously civilised characteristic of an otherwise barbarous other), to a symbol of difference within the unity of the kingdoms under the Crown. In this chapter, I will sketch the trajectory of Irish musical difference since the eighteenth century, and suggest why it

in Are the Irish different?
Ali Rattansi

that enabled Jewish assimilation in the first place, and had led to resistance to anti-Semitism in cities such as Vienna and Paris (Oxaal 1991: 159). Bauman is too ready to dismiss the peculiarities of Western and central European culture as opposed to universal features of ‘modernity’, which is not surprising given his overall thesis about the centrality of ‘modernity’ to the Holocaust. It is worth mentioning in this context that Nazi anti-modernism is also neglected by Bauman.2 The Nazis were not only repulsed by the modernist avant-garde in art, but were also

in Bauman and contemporary sociology
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Ian Goodyer

aestheticised posturing, lay not simply in regurgitating the forms of early twentieth-century modernism, but in attempting to reproduce something of its character, by harnessing popular culture to a movement of popular protest. The continuity between art and politics postulated by Huddle and others helps us to distinguish between RAR and other causes that have enlisted popular music in pursuance of their aims. This certainly sets RAR apart from Bob Geldof’s ‘Aid’ projects, which shared a number of cultural assumptions with the older campaign, although not its orientation on

in Crisis music
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Street photography, humanism and the loss of innocence
Justin Carville

  70 4 Refracted visions: Street photography, humanism and the loss of innocence Justin Carville In 1999, the Belfast-​based design historian David Brett published a short pithy book on the influence of what Max Weber described as ‘Protestant asceticism’ on architectural design and material culture in post-​Reformation Europe and North America (Brett, 1999; Weber 2002: 112–​22). In the preface to the expanded second edition, Brett acknowledged that the original book was written in the context of the Troubles and his interest in the possibility of a scientific

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism