Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock
stand for the rights of the community to which they belonged. The limits of the use of inquest are also shown in a rare example from north-west Spain: here, when questioned, two men from each of five settlements made responses about past practice in their locality that were so ambiguous that a test by ordeal had to be arranged. 85
Interestingly, bishops in the CarolingianEmpire developed an analogous instrument to the inquisitio during the later ninth century in order to be informed as accurately as possible about abuses in the parishes of their dioceses during
important territories in border regions began to move
further outside of royal control. 29
This change in the meaning and significance of noble
titles is even more striking in the case of counts. In the Carolingian
period, comes referred to a royal official, appointed by the
rulers, who possessed judicial and military authority within a specific
region of the Carolingianempire; the office was not
career in southern Italy. Although his sphere of influence reached out to the periphery of the Carolingianempire, this very abbot
and his sermo played an important role in Charlemagne’s political activities in
Italy, for precisely in the zone of influence between two centres of power the
performance of an individual may have a decisive impact. Moreover, in such
zones innovative ideas may develop more rapidly. The abbot in question was
Ambrose Autpertus, a relatively obscure figure in modern scholarship, but a
productive and well-connected eighth-century intellectual
From self-representation to episcopal model. The case of the eloquent bishops Ambrose of Milan and Gregory the Great
the intellectual and
ecclesiastical elites.6 Centuries after their deaths, during the reign of Louis II
(844–75), the regnum italicum was again the place of residence of the emperor
and his court, turning a peripheral kingdom into a centre of gravity within the
Carolingianempire.7 As Italian episcopal leaders found themselves to the fore
of the political scene, their skills as eloquent speakers – able to counsel the
emperor appropriately, as well as to participate in and moderate the dialogue
among the most powerful agents of their time (Frankish rulers, the pope
duchy of Normandy, as one of the earliest
principalities to be formed out of the crumbling Carolingianempire,
has often been seen as being contained within the distinctive lines
formed by the rivers Epte, Eure and Avre. 31 Several historians and
historical geographers have commented on how these medieval
political boundaries often followed much older demarcations.
deiussor, warantus ), who is a surety, but is not
deprived of liberty’. Kosto, ‘Hostages in the
Carolingian World’, 128.
Timothy Reuter, ‘Plunder and Tribute
in the CarolingianEmpire’, TRHS , 5th ser., 35
(1985), 75–8; Kershaw, ‘Rex Pacificus’,
in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the End of the CarolingianEmpire (Cambridge, 2003), pp. 116–17.
43 M. J. McCarthy, ‘Power and kingship under Louis II the Stammerer, 877–879’ (PhD dissertation, University of Cambridge, 2012), pp. 74–7.
44 Devisse, Hincmar , II, p. 922.
45 Ibid .
46 Ibid ., I, p. 29: ‘Reims est aussi un centre important pour l’administration du royaume et Charles compte sur le prélat pour l’aider à reprendre en mains un
Hincmar would have liked); relevant too were ideas about the deference owed to patrons, whether these patrons were kings or the founders or owners of a small local church; so too were rules about ‘translation’, that is moving from one church to another. 62 Just as the great abbeys and cathedrals of the CarolingianEmpire were sanctified places, so Hincmar considered that modest parish churches were holy buildings too, whose materiality was of great symbolic significance and therefore needed to be monitored. 63 If the issues raised by the parish were both major and
Word (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 227–41.
Waldere , ed. E. van Kirk Dobbie, The
Anglo-Saxon Minor Poems (New York, 1942), pp.
T. Reuter, ‘Plunder and tribute in the
Carolingianempire’, TRHS , 5th series, 35 (1985), pp
to protect Christians from the consequences of their sinful mortal
life after death. Medieval people sought to atone for their sinful
acts through confessing their sins and then undertaking penitential
acts such as fasting, flagellation or almsgiving. 44 After the break-up
of the Carolingianempire in the ninth century, the ritual of
penance became integrated into secular society and was no longer