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Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

stand for the rights of the community to which they belonged. The limits of the use of inquest are also shown in a rare example from north-west Spain: here, when questioned, two men from each of five settlements made responses about past practice in their locality that were so ambiguous that a test by ordeal had to be arranged. 85 Interestingly, bishops in the Carolingian Empire developed an analogous instrument to the inquisitio during the later ninth century in order to be informed as accurately as possible about abuses in the parishes of their dioceses during

in Neighbours and strangers
Abstract only
Jonathan R. Lyon

important territories in border regions began to move further outside of royal control. 29 This change in the meaning and significance of noble titles is even more striking in the case of counts. In the Carolingian period, comes referred to a royal official, appointed by the rulers, who possessed judicial and military authority within a specific region of the Carolingian empire; the office was not

in Noble Society
Maximilian Diesenberger

career in southern Italy. Although his sphere of influence reached out to the periphery of the Carolingian empire, this very abbot and his sermo played an important role in Charlemagne’s political activities in Italy, for precisely in the zone of influence between two centres of power the performance of an individual may have a decisive impact. Moreover, in such zones innovative ideas may develop more rapidly. The abbot in question was Ambrose Autpertus, a relatively obscure figure in modern scholarship, but a productive and well-connected eighth-century intellectual

in Religious Franks
From self-representation to episcopal model. The case of the eloquent bishops Ambrose of Milan and Gregory the Great
Giorgia Vocino

the intellectual and ecclesiastical elites.6 Centuries after their deaths, during the reign of Louis II (844–75), the regnum italicum was again the place of residence of the emperor and his court, turning a peripheral kingdom into a centre of gravity within the Carolingian empire.7 As Italian episcopal leaders found themselves to the fore of the political scene, their skills as eloquent speakers  – able to counsel the emperor appropriately, as well as to participate in and moderate the dialogue among the most powerful agents of their time (Frankish rulers, the pope

in Religious Franks
Jenny Benham

duchy of Normandy, as one of the earliest principalities to be formed out of the crumbling Carolingian empire, has often been seen as being contained within the distinctive lines formed by the rivers Epte, Eure and Avre. 31 Several historians and historical geographers have commented on how these medieval political boundaries often followed much older demarcations. Charlemagne

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Jenny Benham

deiussor, warantus ), who is a surety, but is not deprived of liberty’. Kosto, ‘Hostages in the Carolingian World’, 128. 23 Timothy Reuter, ‘Plunder and Tribute in the Carolingian Empire’, TRHS , 5th ser., 35 (1985), 75–8; Kershaw, ‘Rex Pacificus’, 128

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Margaret J. McCarthy

in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the End of the Carolingian Empire (Cambridge, 2003), pp.  116–17. 43 M.  J. McCarthy, ‘Power and kingship under Louis II the Stammerer, 877–879’ (PhD dissertation, University of Cambridge, 2012), pp.  74–7. 44 Devisse, Hincmar , II, p.  922. 45 Ibid . 46 Ibid ., I, p.  29: ‘Reims est aussi un centre important pour l’administration du royaume et Charles compte sur le prélat pour l’aider à reprendre en mains un

in Hincmar of Rheims
Charles West

Hincmar would have liked); relevant too were ideas about the deference owed to patrons, whether these patrons were kings or the founders or owners of a small local church; so too were rules about ‘translation’, that is moving from one church to another. 62 Just as the great abbeys and cathedrals of the Carolingian Empire were sanctified places, so Hincmar considered that modest parish churches were holy buildings too, whose materiality was of great symbolic significance and therefore needed to be monitored. 63 If the issues raised by the parish were both major and

in Hincmar of Rheims
Rachel Stone

Word (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 227–41. 15 Waldere , ed. E. van Kirk Dobbie, The Anglo-Saxon Minor Poems (New York, 1942), pp. 4–6. 16 T. Reuter, ‘Plunder and tribute in the Carolingian empire’, TRHS , 5th series, 35 (1985), pp

in Frankland
Jenny Benham

to protect Christians from the consequences of their sinful mortal life after death. Medieval people sought to atone for their sinful acts through confessing their sins and then undertaking penitential acts such as fasting, flagellation or almsgiving. 44 After the break-up of the Carolingian empire in the ninth century, the ritual of penance became integrated into secular society and was no longer

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages