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A transnational approach to co-operative history
Mary Hilson

-operators as well, and after 1918 they devoted much time to the question of how to apply co-operative principles to the re-organisation of trade, not only locally and nationally but also internationally. This book is concerned with the transnational history of co-operation, an area which has hitherto been relatively little researched.4 From its beginnings co-operation was shaped by the transfer and exchange of ideas across national boundaries, and from 1895 it also had its own international organisation, the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA). The book focuses on co

Civilisation
Kirsten Haack

As the previous chapter showed, the role and place of democracy have always been expressions of its time and the historic, systemic constraints placed upon it. To understand the limitations of democracy in today’s international dimension, be that a ‘right to democratic governance’ or the promotion of democratic statehood through international organisations such as the UN, is to understand the limitations it faced in its historical development. As the UN is as much a result of its historical context and changes as it is a vehicle for them

in The United Nations democracy agenda
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Susan Park

3402 World Bank Group:2634Prelims 12/11/09 14:55 Page 1 1 Introduction The World Bank Group (WBG) is a constellation of international organisations (IOs) with global reach.1 Since the early 1980s, environmental groups have documented numerous cases where the World Bank (IBRD/IDA), the most well-known organisation, has contributed to environmental devastation and community dislocation through its development projects. In doing so, environmentalists challenge the perceived omnipotence of the World Bank in spreading globalisation and determining development

in World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists
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Nigel D. White

From the outset, this text makes it clear that the law of international organisations is dominated by the UN and is actually best understood through a focus on that organisation. It defines and explains inter-governmentalism and the role of law in its regulation. The chapters in the new edition are not only re-ordered (with some merging), but have largely been rewritten with the insertion of a number of case studies that help to bring home how the law works within an institutional order dominated by politics. The case studies highlight the debates that surround

in The law of international organisations (third edition)
The International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) before and after the First World War
Mary Hilson

2 Co-operative internationalism in practice: the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) before and after the First World War Like other international organisations of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the ICA did not emerge in a vacuum, but was rooted in the personal international networks that had developed among co-operators during the second half of the nineteenth century.1 These networks originated in northern and western Europe. The first ICA congresses were essentially bipartite collaborations between French and British co

Antal Berkes

The International Law Commission’s work on the identification of customary international law raised the question whether actors other than States may play a role in the formation or expression of customary international law. Beyond international organisations whose contribution to the formation of customary international law is covered in detail in the Special Rapporteur’s third report, the role of ‘other non-State actors’ such as non-governmental organisations and even individuals was only briefly invoked by the Special Rapporteur. Indeed, scholar works

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law
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Patrick Thornberry

necessarily identical in their nature or in the extent of their rights, and their nature depends upon the needs of the community. Throughout its history, the development of international law has been influenced by the requirements of international life, and the progressive increase in the collective action of States has already given rise to instances of action upon the international plane by certain entities which are not States.5 Leaving aside the arcane language of subjects and objects, a range of entities – States, international organisations, peoples, individuals

in Indigenous peoples and human rights
International health accounting in historical perspective, 1925–2011
Christopher Sirrs

resources and containing costs is a top priority, while in others, especially in the global South, improving access to health care, fairness in financing, and tackling health inequalities are also important considerations. By relating health spending to key outcome indicators, such as healthy life expectancy (HALE), national health accounting allows the assessment of health systems performance, a task which in recent decades has fallen to international organisations including the World Health Organisation (WHO) and World Bank. 2

in Accounting for health
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Daniel Laqua

physiognomy’.3 The Belgian case reveals the interaction between different visions of international order, transnational activism and diplomacy. In Belgium, the seemingly pragmatic efforts of officials and scholars overlapped with the campaigns of peace activists. This chapter therefore approaches the engagement with questions of peace and international organisation at different levels and traces them across the First World War. It shows how support for the aims of peace groups cut across the political spectrum, based on the understanding that internationalism and national

in The age of internationalism and Belgium, 1880–1930
The quest for the right to science
Marco Cappato

, as well as legal restrictions, seem to change dramatically if, instead of seeking a cure, the ‘alteration’ of our consciousness is done just for the sake of it. This chapter will focus mainly upon the prohibition of narcotics and other psychoactive substances, and its impact on science. I will discuss how international organisations, particularly the United Nations, have intervened over the years to regulate and control the use and distribution of psychoactive substances. There are three main international conventions that deal with psychoactive substances. The

in The freedom of scientific research