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P. J. P. Goldberg

purposes. Many anchoresses were associated with (often poorer) urban parishes [8a] and appear to have served as spiritual counsellors to the lay community. Margery Kempe, to cite the best known example, consulted the anchoress Julian of Norwich, author of the Revelations of Divine Love , but lay patronage is perhaps reflected more generally in the evidence of alms and bequests to anchoresses [8b], [9

in Women in England c. 1275–1525
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Final vistas of Spenser and Shakespeare
Robert Lanier Reid

, Mechthild in Germany, Marguerite Porete in France, Margery Kempe and Julian of Norwich in England. We note this latter group’s focus on (1) knowing God as love, (2) experiential suffering through imitating Christ, (3) imagining God as a divine sea with one’s visions conceived as ‘flowings’; and (4) the self annihilation of being ‘poured out’. In Spenser’s epic such uncontrolled

in Renaissance psychologies
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Monasticism in late medieval England, c. 1300–1535
Martin Heale

This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts covered by the sources in this book. The book surveys the internal affairs of English monasteries, including recruitment, the monastic economy, standards of observance and learning. It looks at the relations between monasteries and the world, exploring the monastic contribution to late medieval religion and society and lay attitudes towards monks and nuns in the years leading up to the Dissolution. In the preservation and dissemination of learning, the spread of Christianity throughout Europe, the periodic reform of the Church, the stimulation of the economy and much else, the monastic contribution to the medieval world needs no elaboration. The later middle ages was an era of evolution in English monastic life in late medieval England. In comparison to earlier centuries, the later middle ages witnessed few new monastic foundations and few major grants of property to existing religious houses.

in Monasticism in late medieval England, c. 1300–1535
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Craig Taylor

holy woman who claimed to be guided by God through the medium of angels and saints. In this regard, she was not a unique figure, as she followed in the footsteps of a number of famous individuals who enjoyed great influence and spiritual authority in late medieval Europe. These included the Dominican tertiary Catherine of Siena (d. 1380), the Beguine nun Mechthild of Hackeborn (d. 1298/9), the anchoress Julian of

in Joan of Arc