affair involving several triumphal
cars and representations of St Prospero, various cherubim and
angels, Justice, JuliusCaesar, and the seven Virtues. The wedding
of Lucrezia Borgia to Alfonso d’Este in Rome in 1501 was
graced by several triumphal processions, including one representing
Petrarch’s triumph of Scipio Africanus. And the entry of Louis
XII into Milan included an
Renaissance Texts and Studies (Binghamton,
NY: Center for Medieval & Early Renaissance Studies, 1985), pp. 638–44,
p. 638. He describes the elder Scaliger (JuliusCaesar) as ‘a major exponent of
epigrammatic sequences’ (640) without giving a reference.
67 Reynolds, Epigrammata (1611).
68 Niccols, The Furies, sig. A3r.
Epigrams in print187
69 Charles Cathcart, ‘John Davies of Hereford, Marston, and Hall’, Ben Jonson
Journal, 17(2010), pp. 242–8, p. 243.
70 Jonson, ‘To All to Whom I Write’, Ep. 9.
71 Partridge, ‘Jonson’s Epigrammes: The Named and the Nameless’, p. 155.
Metaphor and mental space in Ralegh’s History of the World
JuliusCaesar, IV.iii.218–21. The boat departing at high tide will get you clear of the
shoals. Here too, there is a compression of time to the small scale of one tidal cycle.
What differs is the mapping of roles in the tidal scenario. In Raleigh’s figure, the ebbing
tide is one’s life itself, one’s failing energy. In Shakespeare’s, the tide is a moving target, a
passing opportunity that one must move energetically to exploit.
(b) overwhelms the integration principle that would otherwise
Rewriting Shakespeare in A Poem upon the Death of O. C.
. Margoliouth, Legouis,
Donald Friedman, and Nigel Smith have caught allusions to JuliusCaesar, Antony and Cleopatra, Romeo and Juliet, King Lear, and Henry V
in other parts of the poem.9 But no one seems to have noticed that ‘I
saw him dead’ is a direct quotation of Hal’s startled response to Falstaff’s
rising from the dead in Henry IV, Part 1. Shortly after Douglas appears
to have slain Falstaff in Act 5, Prince John sees Falstaff alive and asks
Hal, ‘Did you not tell me this fat man was dead?’ Hal insists, ‘I did, I
saw him dead, / Breathless and bleeding on the ground
. Colman – honest. How can we be sure that he is always to be
honest?’ With every use of the word, it sounded increasingly hollow. It
was a rhetorical ploy from the ancient world that Wedderburn would
have discovered as a schoolboy at Dalkeith, a way of assassinating
someone’s character straight out of Shakespeare’s JuliusCaesar. He
continued to chip away at the certainty of Colman’s integrity. ‘If there
are no curbs placed upon him, he might do the most absurd things,’
Wedderburn speculated. With the authority that he assumed, ‘he might
take the whole wardrobe up to
Kempe, The Education of Children (1588), sig. D1r. This contention might be
compared with that of Ralegh himself: ‘it is well knowne, that Rome (or perhaps all the
world besides) had never nay so brave a Commander in war as JuliusCaesar: and that
no Roman armie was comparable unto that which served under the same Caesar.’ See
19 I am indebted for these references to Rapple, Martial Heroism, 80–1.
20 For an age which had been profoundly (and violently) exercised by a prolonged interrogation of Early Stuart sovereignty, an indication of Ralegh
associated the title of the
song with Bush’s foreign policy, equating ‘Let the dogs out’ with ‘Let slip the dogs of
war’, in Marc Antony’s speech in Shakespeare’s ‘JuliusCaesar’, www.phrases.org.uk/
bulletin_board/49/messages/1123.html, accessed 25/1/12.
39 For example, the debates as to whether ancient Egypt was Grecian, African or Arabic,
and today whether it is part of the Arabic or African world.
African Renaissance and the ‘rainbow nation’
cult it is to separate histories and mythologies from local contemporary
politics, as we see in the way the Timbuktu
and 2 – Vives’ identification of Daphnis as Christ and Servius’ identification of Daphnis as JuliusCaesar. In his hymn to the newly deified
Daphnis, Virgil’s Menalcas institutes a cult, teaching his community
how to worship the new god. (More than half of his song (ll. 65–80)
is devoted to the altars he will set up and the annual feasts he will
institute in Daphnis’ honour.) In this he resembles Colin, especially
when viewed through the lens of Vives’ Christian interpretation, by
which Daphnis is in fact the same god represented by Colin’s Cupid
from the Greek Anthology which was ascribed to Plato (a love
one, at that!) and one from the Anthologia Latina frequently fathered upon
JuliusCaesar, Augustus or Germanicus. Fitzgerald recounts an anecdote
from Macrobius, where Augustus turns the tables and presents a Greek
epigram to a poet expecting patronage,95 and Suetonius wrote of that same
emperor that he had a book of epigrams, ‘which he composed for the most
part at the time of the bath’.96
Fallen royal favourites were particularly likely to have such poems
attributed to them. The Earl of Essex was the
of JuliusCaesar or the primitive Scotland of Macbeth – those materials
had been the triumph of his art.20 With an air of resignation, Kemble
would write a terse, matter-of-fact note in his journal later that day:
This morning, between four and five o’clock, a fire broke out in Covent
Garden Theatre which, in less than two hours time, consumed it to the
ground. We have [?] not been able to discover the cause of this misfortune.21
The fire should not have been a cause of great surprise. Despite housing
irreplaceable treasures, there was a merciless inevitability