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Dealing with the Adoptionist controversy at the court of Charlemagne
Rutger Kramer

the concept of sacerdotes and the many layers of meaning connected to that concept in the Carolingian age, see M. de Jong, The Penitential State. Authority and Atonement in the Age of Louis the Pious, 814–840 (Cambridge, 2009), pp.  178–83; S.  Patzold, Episcopus. Wissen über Bischöfe im Frankenreich des späten 8.  bis frühen 10. Jahrhunderts, Mittelalter-Forschungen 25 (Ostfildern, 2008), pp. 135–84. 48 J. Nelson, ‘Kingship and empire’, in J.  Burns (ed.), The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought: c. 350–c. 1450 (Cambridge, 1988), 211–51, pp. 211–12. 49

in Religious Franks
Regino of Prüm and royal monastic conversion
Erik Goosmann and Rob Meens

. de Jong, C. van Rhijn and F. Theuws (eds), Topographies of Power in the Early Middle Ages (Leiden/Boston, MA/Cologne, 2001), 291–328; and, in general, M. de Jong, The Penitential State. Authority and Atonement in the Age of Louis the Pious, 814–840 (Cambridge, 2009). 26 Einhard, Vita Karoli Magni, c. 20, ed. O. Holder-Egger, MGH SRG 25, p. 25. A further example is that of Notker the Stammerer; see C.  Hammer, ‘ “Pipinus rex”; Pippin’s Plot of 792 and Bavaria’, Traditio 63 (2008), 235–76; and C. Hammer, From Ducatus to Regnum. Ruling Bavaria under the Merovingians and

in Religious Franks
Kathleen G. Cushing

uniformity through its preference for the Rule of St Benedict. After Charlemagne’s death in 814, his empire steadily fell apart during the reign of his son, Louis the Pious, resulting in the creation of three separate entities by 843: the west Frankish, east Frankish and middle kingdoms. The ninth- and tenth-century invasions by the Muslims, Vikings, Magyars and Slavs had contributed to this fragmentation, though historians now speculate about the extent to which the empire crumbled from internal weaknesses rather than from external pressure and incursion. 4 Nevertheless

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century
The case of Trising in context
Mayke de Jong

another. 26 Over the past decade, views on the date and origins of the False Decretals have changed. Until quite recently, the forgery used to be seen as the product of conflicts between Hincmar and his clergy, to be dated to 847–52; nowadays it is thought to have originated in the monastery of Corbie, in the direct aftermath of the rebellions against Louis the Pious in 830 and 833. 27 Although the discussion still continues, the first direct reference to the Decretals remains the one in Hincmar’s Second episcopal statute , issued on 1

in Hincmar of Rheims
Timothy Reuter

This chapter contains the text of The Annals of Fulda in full, translated and annotated by Timothy Reuter.

in The Annals of Fulda
James Naus

in elevating Pippin to the throne as the first Carolingian king. As one might expect, Pippin was remarkably generous over the course of his reign to his patron. Among other things, he appointed Fulrad the maître de la chapelle , an advisory role that ensured the Dionysian abbot’s continued role in politics. The relationship was also important because it prefigured the close association between Dionysian abbots and French kings in the succeeding centuries. Hilduin (abbot from 814 to 840) had particularly close connections to the royal court. Louis the Pious made

in Constructing kingship
Hincmar in the crisis of 875
Clémentine Bernard-Valette

’s synod. Hincmar and other bishops from the provinces of Rheims and Rouen decided to warn Louis, and sent him a letter to persuade him not to usurp his brother’s throne. 5 The bishops’ 858 letter had three purposes: it announced that they refused to meet Louis at a council where the latter wanted to see his plans ratified by Charles’s primores regni ; 6 it reminded Louis of the necessity of protecting the confraternity regime and the conditions of peace between Louis the Pious’s sons and heirs, as ratified by Lothar, Louis and Charles in

in Hincmar of Rheims
Abstract only
Kriston R. Rennie

forged – and the ongoing claims of both factions. 45 The monks of Saint-Calais first complained of the bishop’s oppression at the councils of Bonneuil (855) and Pîtres (862). 46 As defence, they presented genuine Frankish immunities from Pippin the Short, Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, and Charles the Bald. 47 Ignoring the conciliar decisions, however, the bishops of Le Mans did not easily cede their jurisdictional rights over the monastery. 48 In countering the monastery’s claims, in fact, they drew on their own written evidence ( legitima

in Freedom and protection
Lower office holders
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

unclear category). 90 A capitulary issued by Louis the Pious mentions them in a list: ‘praepositus, advocatus, centenarius vel qualibet alia dignitate praedita libera persona’, where centenarii and other office holders are presented as free men invested with a certain honour ( dignitas ). 91 A capitulary issued in Aachen in 809 mentions the ‘appointment’ of centenarii and other office holders involved in legal proceedings but only in a passive clause: they ‘should be appointed to fulfil their duties’. From the perspective of the Carolingian court, qualification

in Neighbours and strangers
Dame Janet L. Nelson

profoundly thoughtful study of the reigns of Charlemagne and his successor Louis the Pious published in Switzerland in 1949, identified the problems that Charlemagne worked hard to solve, but in the end left un solved: his inability to ‘find men with enough of the public spirit that was implied in the concept of fidelity’, or to obtain ‘change in personnel – the basic condition of all reform’. 41 F. L. Ganshof (1895–1980), a Belgian medievalist influenced by Pirenne, published a collection of essays in 1971, but mostly dating from the post-war years, about government in

in Debating medieval Europe