follow realistic conventions in ‘authenticating’ rather than
re-visioning the Civil Rights Movement. Criticalrealism is not
inevitably the most effective way of representing recent history in ways
that continue to touch the popular imagination though, as television has
shown. However, many working in history and cinema still betray in their
work on film a reductive focus on fidelity – even historians David
imperatives may prompt reassessment of an existing ideological commitment but
the substantive shaping of the new commitment may be better understood by reference to the institutional dynamics of the party.
Secondly, the ontological foundations of an alternative model – its theory of
reality – should be considered. Here critical realist theory overrides the rigid dualism between structure and agency, identified above. (A full account of this perspective cannot be offered here; see Archer 1995; Bhaskar 1997; Marsh et al. 1997).
Suffice it to say that criticalrealism views
an interpretative one concerned
with senior managers’ experiences of getting into, doing and being in senior
management. Criticalrealism has been seen as compatible with a relatively
wide range of research methods, including ethnographic and quantitative ones
(Williams, 2003). Although the dominant perspective was a structural one, the
possibility of agency was recognized in a context where, through increasing the
visibility of inequality regimes, it was possible to convert private troubles into
public issues (Wright Mills, 1970) and thus potentially create new
criticalrealism, or ‘soft’
constructivism, effectively accepting that ‘reality’ exists independently
of our knowledge of it, but emphasising that the social world is only
understood through subjective interpretation. The methodological focus
is, therefore, precisely on individual actors’ subjective understandings
of immigration and immigration policy. Policy-making does not exist
in a vacuum – it is a process that is carried out by individuals that exist
within a political and social context. This implies an actor-centred
approach, identifying the different types of
P. Mandaville and A. Williams (eds.), Meaning and International Relations (London:
Routledge, 2003); S. Chan and P. Mandaville, ‘Introduction: Within International
Relations Itself, a New Culture Rises up’, The Zen of International Relations (London:
Palgrave, 2001), pp. 1–16.
H. Patomäki and C. Wright, ‘After Postpositivism? The Promises of CriticalRealism’,
International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 2 (2000), pp. 213–237.
W.V. Quine, From A Logical Point Of View (New York: Harper and Row, 1961).
H. Putnam, Realism with a Human
Undead aesthetics and mechanical reproduction – Dorian Gray, Dracula and David Reed’s ‘vampire painting’
some Hegelian dialectics, rejecting the
narrow instrumentalism demanded of realist art and advocating
aestheticism, yet simultaneously defending a criticalrealism that
exposes the vices of the bourgeoisie (indeed, there is evidence that he
had read Hegel). 45 He uses
this device to explore and satirise the relationships in realism between
artist, subject and audience/viewer. 46
because we are caught between the promise (if that
is what it is) of a cosmopolitan legal order, and the criticalrealism
of classical international law. The statist bias and foundation of the
United Nations, particularly the Security Council, serves to keep this
paradox static, as it is hard to envisage member states concurring with
the transition from Westphalian international law to a new
because man is always in context – man’s ‘ontological being’ cannot be separated from his ‘social and historical environment’ ( 1963 : 19). For Lukács, therefore, the promotion of modernist literature at the expense of realist literature also denies the way in which realism understands the relationship between individuals and the totality of society.
Lukács argued that the best kind of critique available from literature was that presented by what he called bourgeois criticalrealism. Although the ultimate aim for literature should be socialist realism, it was not in
. and Norrie , A. (eds) ( 2013 ) Criticalrealism: Essential readings . London and New York, NY : Routledge .
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Barnes , T.J. ( 2008 ) American pragmatism: Towards a geographical introduction. Geoforum , 39 , 4 , 1542–54 .
Bebbington , A. and Kothari , U. ( 2006 ) Transnational development networks. Environment and Planning A , 38 , 5 , 849–66 .
Bernstein , R.J. ( 2010 ) The pragmatic turn
sorts related to the fin-de-siècle atmosphere of pessimism and decadence. In Sweden, this Gothic resurgence is more specifically connected to an important moment in Swedish literary history known as the ‘shift between the 1880s and the 1890s’ – the common denominator is the debut of Selma Lagerlöf. During the 1870s and 1880s, a period known as ‘the modern breakthrough’, criticalrealism predominated Scandinavian literature and addressing the problems of modern society was perceived as the author's main task. In a Swedish context, the idea of literature as a vehicle