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Civil rites of passage
Sharon Monteith

follow realistic conventions in ‘authenticating’ rather than re-visioning the Civil Rights Movement. Critical realism is not inevitably the most effective way of representing recent history in ways that continue to touch the popular imagination though, as television has shown. However, many working in history and cinema still betray in their work on film a reductive focus on fidelity – even historians David

in Memory and popular film
Nick Randall

imperatives may prompt reassessment of an existing ideological commitment but the substantive shaping of the new commitment may be better understood by reference to the institutional dynamics of the party. Secondly, the ontological foundations of an alternative model – its theory of reality – should be considered. Here critical realist theory overrides the rigid dualism between structure and agency, identified above. (A full account of this perspective cannot be offered here; see Archer 1995; Bhaskar 1997; Marsh et al. 1997). Suffice it to say that critical realism views

in Interpreting the Labour Party
Pat O’Connor

an interpretative one concerned with senior managers’ experiences of getting into, doing and being in senior management. Critical realism has been seen as compatible with a relatively wide range of research methods, including ethnographic and quantitative ones (Williams, 2003). Although the dominant perspective was a structural one, the possibility of agency was recognized in a context where, through increasing the visibility of inequality regimes, it was possible to convert private troubles into public issues (Wright Mills, 1970) and thus potentially create new

in Management and gender in higher education
Theory and methods
Alex Balch

critical realism, or ‘soft’ constructivism, effectively accepting that ‘reality’ exists independently of our knowledge of it, but emphasising that the social world is only understood through subjective interpretation. The methodological focus is, therefore, precisely on individual actors’ subjective understandings of immigration and immigration policy. Policy-making does not exist in a vacuum – it is a process that is carried out by individuals that exist within a political and social context. This implies an actor-centred approach, identifying the different types of

in Managing labour migration in Europe
Towards interpretive pluralism
Cerwyn Moore

. Notes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 P. Mandaville and A. Williams (eds.), Meaning and International Relations (London: Routledge, 2003); S. Chan and P. Mandaville, ‘Introduction: Within International Relations Itself, a New Culture Rises up’, The Zen of International Relations (London: Palgrave, 2001), pp. 1–16. H. Patomäki and C. Wright, ‘After Postpositivism? The Promises of Critical Realism’, International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 2 (2000), pp. 213–237. W.V. Quine, From A Logical Point Of View (New York: Harper and Row, 1961). H. Putnam, Realism with a Human

in Contemporary violence
Undead aesthetics and mechanical reproduction – Dorian Gray, Dracula and David Reed’s ‘vampire painting’
Sam George

some Hegelian dialectics, rejecting the narrow instrumentalism demanded of realist art and advocating aestheticism, yet simultaneously defending a critical realism that exposes the vices of the bourgeoisie (indeed, there is evidence that he had read Hegel). 45 He uses this device to explore and satirise the relationships in realism between artist, subject and audience/viewer. 46

in Open Graves, Open Minds
Abstract only
Naomi Head

because we are caught between the promise (if that is what it is) of a cosmopolitan legal order, and the critical realism of classical international law. The statist bias and foundation of the United Nations, particularly the Security Council, serves to keep this paradox static, as it is hard to envisage member states concurring with the transition from Westphalian international law to a new ‘cosmopolitan

in Justifying violence
Steven Earnshaw

because man is always in context – man’s ‘ontological being’ cannot be separated from his ‘social and historical environment’ ( 1963 : 19). For Lukács, therefore, the promotion of modernist literature at the expense of realist literature also denies the way in which realism understands the relationship between individuals and the totality of society. Lukács argued that the best kind of critique available from literature was that presented by what he called bourgeois critical realism. Although the ultimate aim for literature should be socialist realism, it was not in

in Beginning realism
Alireza F. Farahani and Azadeh Hadizadeh Esfahani

. and Norrie , A. (eds) ( 2013 ) Critical realism: Essential readings . London and New York, NY : Routledge . Banerjee , A.V. and Duflo , E. ( 2009 ) The experimental approach to development economics. Annual Review of Economics , 1 , 1 , 151–78 . Barnes , T.J. ( 2008 ) American pragmatism: Towards a geographical introduction. Geoforum , 39 , 4 , 1542–54 . Bebbington , A. and Kothari , U. ( 2006 ) Transnational development networks. Environment and Planning A , 38 , 5 , 849–66 . Bernstein , R.J. ( 2010 ) The pragmatic turn

in The power of pragmatism
Hans Christian Andersen and Selma Lagerlöf
Maria Holmgren Troy and Sofia Wijkmark

sorts related to the fin-de-siècle atmosphere of pessimism and decadence. In Sweden, this Gothic resurgence is more specifically connected to an important moment in Swedish literary history known as the ‘shift between the 1880s and the 1890s’ – the common denominator is the debut of Selma Lagerlöf. During the 1870s and 1880s, a period known as ‘the modern breakthrough’, critical realism predominated Scandinavian literature and addressing the problems of modern society was perceived as the author's main task. In a Swedish context, the idea of literature as a vehicle

in Nordic Gothic