The return migration of the Fellowship of the Maple Leaf
Marilyn J. Barber
and lectures. The Maple Leaf teacher
scheme enabled educated British women to participate as equals with men in empiremigration
and empire development. Among FML teacher candidates, women outnumbered men by a ratio of six
to one. They were motivated by a call to service, enthusiasm for travel, or simply the desire
for better employment. Dorothy Watkins, a teacher on the staff of Portsmouth secondary
school, heard the call during Lloyd’s visit to Southsea. 29 Marion Green wrote to Lloyd that ‘I shall always
be thankful that
: Manchester University Press, 1990 ).
Constantine, Emigrants and Empire , 4: the
Empire Settlement Act of 1922 was ‘an Act to make better
provision for furthering British settlement in His Majesty’s
Dane Kennedy, ‘Empiremigration in
The discourse of unbridled capitalism in post-war Hong Kong
see Rachel Bright, ‘Asian Migration and the British
World’, in Kent Fedorowich and Andrew S. Thompson (eds),
Empire, Migration and Identity in the British World
(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013), pp.
Edward Szczepanik, The Economic Growth of
Hong Kong (Westport
Corona (August 1962), p. 8.
Jean P. Smith, ‘“The women's branch of the Commonwealth Relations Office”: the Society for the Overseas Settlement of British Women and the long life of empiremigration’, Women's History Review , 25:4 (2016), 529.
comparison prevailed in Australia, too ; the strongest common
trait between the masses in the two countries was suspicion of Empiremigration.
Even Australian governments and officials formally
supportive of migration were conscious enough of political feeling and
economic pressures to impose considerable restraints. This was most
obvious in restricting assistance to people ‘nominated’ or
The introduction of the
ex-servicemen’s assisted-passage scheme in 1919 and the Empire
Settlement Act of 1922 signalled the Imperial government’s
conversion to a faith in Empiremigration as a solution to several
apparent domestic and international difficulties. But it was
acknowledged that effective policies depended on the active cooperation
of the dominion governments
little headway in Ottawa. While officials promised to give the
schemes ‘every consideration’, the
‘Government’s attitude was one of caution’ given
the practical difficulties. Other supporters of renewed immigration
included such patriotic groups as the Canadian Corps Association and
IODE, the so-called ‘Empire Policy Group’ of
Conservative British MPs, as well as the ‘Empire
redistribute them in the Empire, while at
the same time encouraging the exploitation of under-developed imperial
Amery’s concept of state-aided Empiremigration and land
settlement, adumbrated at a conference in London early in 1921, was
therefore basically a scheme of overseas relief for the United
Kingdom’s unemployed, clothed in the vocabulary of enlightened
platitudes or ritual incantations’. 100 Despite the constraints of the
domestic political scene, serious doubt remains as to the sincerity of
both Botha and Smuts to support British immigration. Their public
pronouncements were guarded and vague, steeped in the knowledge that any
commitment to empiremigration would lose votes in the backveldt.
Rhetoric aside, this determination to pursue a course of inaction for
Kent Fedorowich and Andrew S. Thompson,
‘Introduction’ in Empire, migration and identity in
the British world (Manchester, forthcoming).
Kingsley Davis, The Population of India and
Pakistan (Princeton, 1951).