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Natalya Vince

its identity (dépersonnalisation), was one of progress, challenging established social, racial and gendered orders. This fight to claim the monopoly on authenticity was not unique to Algeria. In newly independent Tunisia in 1956, as President Habib Bourguiba pushed through the new Personal Status Code, outlawing polygamy and repudiation and recognising right of mothers to pass Tunisian Embodying the nation 147 nationality on to their children, he justified each innovation with a quotation from the Qur’an, arguing that this was a ‘return’ to the pre

in Our fighting sisters
Recruiting for operations in France
Juliette Pattinson

Mauritius, Switzerland, Australia, Poland, Canada, Russia and India. They came from a variety of religious backgrounds as well: there were Jews, Roman Catholics, Buddhists, Quakers and a Muslim Sufi. The recruits were of varied age, ranging from early twenties to middle age. Some recruits were married with children, others were newly-weds, some were widows, a few had been divorced, some were homosexual and many heterosexual men and women were single. Hence, recruits came from a wide variety of backgrounds and were differentiated by gender, nationality, class, occupation

in Behind Enemy Lines
Comparing the labour market outcomes of Spanish, Polish and Nigerian migrants
Ebun Joseph

group differential in experiences explicit. In a special issue which examined racial inequality in the USA and Britain, Song (2004) addressed the question of whether a racial hierarchy framework helps in explaining racial inequalities and group differential experiences in those two Western multi-ethnic societies. Regardless of the position we take, the reality is that every European country and institution still structures access to its resources and residency rights around race and nationality. With the increasing racial categories operational in Ireland, there is

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Steve Garner

objective way to manage the nation’s membership. However, by examining the Irish case more critically, we can analyse what this entails in terms of assumptions about belonging, and demonstrate that gaining membership of the nation thus becomes predicated on a set of unequally distributed obstacles that benefit some and disadvantage others. The 1922 Constitution’s temporary establishment of the parameters of citizenship stated that those born in the North of Ireland before December 1922 were included as Irish citizens. The Irish Nationality and Citizenship Act

in Defining events
Laura Chrisman

materialist awareness of, and concern with, (institutional, regional, professional, socio-economic) ‘locations’ in which postcoloniality is produced and circulated. Robert Young’s intervention here instead emphasises ethnic or national ‘origins’ of critics in isolation from, and at the expense of, such ‘locations’. Crucial to note here is the inconsistency, the doubleness of Young’s standards: he deems ethnicity to be most significant in Spivak’s case, but when it comes to Parry switches tack to emphasise the category of nationality. (I wonder what might have resulted had

in Postcolonial contraventions
Open Access (free)
Nicholas Atkin

259 Conclusion 259 doned soldiers and sailors to embrace the Allied cause and their tendency to insist upon repatriation tarred the reputation of all the French in Britain, even those belonging to de Gaulle. Their position was further weakened by the contrasting manner in which other exiled nationalities, especially the Poles, rushed to take up arms against the Axis powers. According to Mass-Observation studies of 1940–42, the British public no longer thought a future Anglo-French friendship desirable and viewed the French as among the most exasperating of allies

in The forgotten French
Frances McGinnity and Merike Darmody

-generation immigrants – even if they are not first-generation immigrants themselves. Typically, immigrant-origin children are defined as those whose parents – either one or both – are born abroad, though sometimes the focus is on the parents’ country of origin or nationality, and sometimes the focus is on home language, ethnicity, religion or legal status. Immigrant-origin students in Ireland often find themselves in a situation whereby, on the one hand, they are ‘outsiders’ with little familiarity of the nature of the Irish school system. On the other hand

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
Abstract only
Kathryn Castle

popular publications was their flexibility and responsiveness to the needs of nationality and Empire. The reality of the British Empire was that it encompassed a great variety of peoples and places. This fact made available an extraordinary amount of ‘raw material’ for the historian seeking an heroic past, and for the adventure writers who placed their fiction in the far corners of the globe. Because

in Britannia’s children
Willem Maas

of Rome, inspired by the idea that European integration would lead to monetary stability, economic expansion, social protection, a higher standard of living and quality of life, economic and social cohesion, and solidarity among the member states. 4 Importantly, the Treaty of Rome expanded free movement rights to most workers and members of their families, and also copied from the Treaty of Paris the idea of non-discrimination on the basis of nationality (Maas 2005 ). Alongside the expansion of the transnational European Court, the principle of non

in The European Union after Brexit
Abstract only
Jarle Trondal, Martin Marcussen, Torbjörn Larsson, and Frode Veggeland

wider institutional environment within which the WTO and its Secretariat are embedded. The next section unpacks the meso-level, i.e. the formal organisation of the WTO Secretariat as well as its function within the WTO system. The third section focuses on the micro-level, i.e. the composition of the staff, recruitment procedures, years of tenure, nationality and other demographic factors. The general aim of the chapter is to explore the anatomy of the WTO Secretariat as well as the functions and roles of the Secretariat and its officials and the wider context of both

in Unpacking international organisations