, were inevitably a characteristic of the Zulu and frontier
wars, as well as the first and secondAnglo-Boerwars. This was also true of the
so-called pacification period. There was, for example, a considerable military
encampment with tents and huts at Middelburg in the Cape Colony.53
There are two key examples of fortified military positions in Canada whose
significance survived into the twentieth century. The Citadel in Halifax, Nova
Scotia, begun in 1749 and later developed into one of the great redoubts of
the British Empire, was both a fortress and a great
Bonar Law, 10 October 1915; John Grigg, Lloyd George from Peace
to War 1912–1916 , London, 1985, p. 270. The
kindergarten was the name given to Milner’s cadre of young
Oxford graduates who were placed in key administrative positions in
the reconstruction government during and after the secondAnglo-BoerWar.
Saving the White voters from being ‘utterly swamped’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips, and Shurlee Swain
was within a Transvaal again under Afrikaner
republican governance and not under British rule. The struggle between
Britain and the Transvaal over the control of the gold fields and the
massive wealth which they represented led directly to the South African
(or secondAnglo-Boer) War of 1899–1902. And, by the time that war
broke out, in October 1899, the independent African polities of South
1840s its sovereigns had been Afrikaner republicans opposed to British
rule. Milner’s frantic building following the secondAnglo-BoerWar and the mansions Baker strewed along the ridge proclaim a
foreordained Empire as rooted in the bedrock as any vanished hegemony.
Pointedly ignoring the black presence, they enact the consequences of
the conquest on which the whole politico-economic edifice
of 1897, Irish Catholic priests once more preached against
British power.94 A few years later, both in Ireland and the diaspora,
nationalist sympathies evoked a degree of anti-imperial feeling and in
South Africa, during the SecondAnglo-BoerWar, where the Dutch settlers
directly resisted the empire, there also was profound hostility.
The Irish-American press was powerful, persistent and loud. Patrick
Ford, editor of the Irish World and Industrial Liberator, America’s most
prominent Irish nationalist newspaper, regularly attacked England’s (that
is to say, Britain
Paul , 1988 ).
49 Ibid ., p. xix.
50 Kate Finzi , Eighteen Months in the War Zone: A Record of a Woman’s Work on the Western Front ( London : Cassell , 1916 ), p. 250 .
51 Betty Hutchinson, Box 1, Liddle Collection, WO/057.
52 Summers, Angels and Citizens , p. 239.
53 Charlotte Dale , ‘ Traversing the Veldt with “Tommy Atkins”: The Clinical Challenges of Nursing Typhoid Patients during the SecondAnglo-BoerWar (1899–1902) ’, in Jane Brooks and Christine E. Hallett (eds), One Hundred Years of Wartime Nursing Practices, 1854
There was negligible medical provision for mental and nervous casualties before the First World War. The 955-bed Royal Victoria Military Hospital at Netley provided just 125 beds for such cases within its ‘D Block.’ The Lunacy Act of 1890 enabled discharge from the army, certification and a transferral to an asylum.
During the SecondAnglo-BoerWar, 1899–1902, severely mentally ill troops in both South Ireland and Ulster were discharged from the army and
Nine months later, having received no response from the
Tasmanian government, Blythe vented his spleen: ‘I have been
greatly deceived and my life blighted’ he told the OSC. He thought
it extremely unfair for a man who had fought in South Africa during the
secondAnglo-BoerWar, and had served five years with the Colours
between 1914 and 1919, three of them in France, that the authorities