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Debbie Palmer

industrial psychology to structure their management of nurses. Psychological research supported the notion that the ideal nurse was a combination of feminine and masculine qualities, largely because psychologists now considered leadership and an ability to tolerate harrowing sights as masculine.18 Nurse leaders began to promote qualities associated with masculinity in order to gain higher status.19 At the same time notions of femininity lost some of their potency in conversations about nurses’ risk to illness. Commentators continued to draw on gendered vulnerability when

in Who cared for the carers?
Jane Brooks

masculinity in order to perpetuate the belief in men’s protective role. In contrast to the limited discussions of pain in the histories of war, the frequency with which soldiers’ pain is discussed in the nurses’ own testimonies suggests that they placed significant importance on this aspect of nursing care. One sister wrote of the dreadful state of the Greek soldiers: ‘mostly cases of frost-­bite. They arrived from the hills of Albania in a terrible state, usually having travelled about seven days … drugs were administered to those in pain and the urgent cases of gangrenous

in Negotiating nursing
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Claire L. Jones

intersection of other axes of social identity, including gender, class and occupation.33 Yet, while studies of artificial limbs have demonstrated the gendered and sometimes class-​based nature of prosthesis consumption, particularly as symbols of masculinity among Civil War and First World War soldiers, research on the complex intersectionalities surrounding prosthesis use is in its infancy.34 The authors in this volume expand on current thinking on the intersectional identities of prosthesis users. Extending a growing scholarship on female users of Victorian prostheses

in Rethinking modern prostheses in Anglo-American commodity cultures, 1820–1939
Prostheses for women in nineteenth-century literature and commerce
Ryan Sweet

Herschbach, Erin O’Connor and Steven Mihm, for example, demonstrate the importance of such devices in terms of masculinity.5 O’Connor’s work in particular is important from a gender perspective as it reveals that prostheses were perceived as restorative devices that could reinstate a male amputee’s supposedly lost sense of masculinity by making him ‘whole’ and allowing him to work once more.6 Yet, like depictions of disabled characters in nineteenth-​century literature, the prevalence of disabled females is receiving a growing amount of scholarly attention. Between them

in Rethinking modern prostheses in Anglo-American commodity cultures, 1820–1939
Popular and personal discourse in the 1960s and 1970s
Jill Kirby

testimony certainly acknowledged that this was a common practice, despite its effects not always being particularly positive. Such testimony also implied the gendering of stress, as the three men whose accounts are examined in this chapter were all experiencing stress within the context of a specific post-war understanding of masculinity that did not recognise mental distress and thus made it hard for men to acknowledge stress and the fear that came with it. At the same time, there were other continuities with earlier periods in the way that

in Feeling the strain
Abstract only
Michael Robinson

. Physically disabled Great War veterans left negligible personal records documenting their experiences. 44 This problem was manifested for those mentally ill as a result of war service. Mental breakdown carried an additional stigma in the legacy of Victorian masculinity, and the associated shame would have silenced some ashamed to articulate their suffering with others unable to due to illness. Periodic mental breakdowns frequently occurred during the inter-war years but went unrecorded. 45

in Shell-shocked British Army veterans in Ireland, 1918–39
Patient work in colonial mental hospitals in South Asia, c. 1818–1948
Waltraud Ernst

case with the Bengallees’.68 As Mrinalini Sinha has shown in her work on Colonial Masculinity, Bengali men were increasingly represented by the British as ‘effeminate’ and c­ontrasted with ‘the manly Englishman’ during the late nineteenth century.69  Similarly, mixed-race or Eurasian patients were thought to loathe manual labour. According to common British stereotypes they were ­‘scribblers’, or ­‘crannies’, dedicated to secretarial work, and therefore they ‘despised all trades, save that of the desk’.70 Eurasian inmates in the Calcutta asylum, who were seen to

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Joanne Woiak

’. 28 Intemperate working-class husbands and fathers were said to be a destructive influence because of wasted wages and earning power. Leaders thus appealed to men's notions of ‘respectability’ and self-improvement in order to regulate both alcohol use and the meanings of masculinity. 29 In the 1870s medical organisations, first in the United States, then in Britain, were formed for the study and cure of what they termed the ‘physical disease of inebriety

in Disability and the Victorians
Victorian middle-class attitudes towards the healthcare of the working poor
Amy W. Farnbach Pearson

impairment as discrediting for generations to come. Notes 1 See, for example, P. Joshi, ‘Edwin Chadwick's self-fashioning: professionalism, masculinity, and the Victorian poor’, Victorian Literature and Culture , 32:2 (2004), 353–70. 2 See, for example, the work of Edwin Chadwick, Hector

in Disability and the Victorians
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Pasts, present, futures
Michael Brown

:2 (1991), 197–222. Epilogue 231 11 L. M. E. Goodlad, “Is there a pastor in the “House”? Sanitary reform, professionalism and philanthropy in Dickens’ mid-century Fiction,” Victorian Literature and Culture, 31:2 (2003), 525–53; M. Brown, ‘ “Like a devoted army”: medicine, heroic masculinity and the military paradigm in Victorian Britain’, Journal of British Studies, 49:3 (2010), 592–622. 12 L. M. E. Goodlad, Victorian Literature and the Victorian State: Character and Governance in a Liberal Society (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), chapter 4. 13 C

in Performing medicine