II: Christian Marriage and Political Power in the Carolingian World , trans. T. M. Guest (Ithaca, 2010), pp. 82–3; A. Firey, A Contrite Heart: Prosecution and Redemption in the CarolingianEmpire (Leiden, 2009), pp. 9–60.
97 Trial by ordeal was not usually approved, although sometimes supervised, by the Church at this time: see R. Bartlett, Trial by Fire and Water: the Medieval Judicial Ordeal (Oxford, 1986), especially pp. 70–5 on ninth-century critics; F. McAuley, ‘Canon law and the end of the ordeal’, Oxford Journal of Legal
European integration as a system of conflict resolution in the Franco-German relationship (1950–63)
integration to European
politics and societies.
A specific feature of the Franco-German relationship is
the historical continuity of enmity and war. Rivalry dates back to the
division of Charlemagne’s CarolingianEmpire in the early ninth
century and the creation of the contested middle realm of Lorraine.
Later the Treaty of Westphalia gave France limited control over Alsace
Defining the boundaries of Carolingian Christianity
in Francia 2 (1974), and for the vital familial political
context of the first decade of Pippin’s reign, P. Fouracre,
The Age of Charles Martel (London, 2000), pp.
On the underlying social process, see the
still-seminal T. Reuter, ‘Plunder and tribute in the
the manuscript as a whole include S. Gavinelli, ‘Per
un’enciclopedia Carolingia (codex Bernese 363)’,
Italia Medioevale e Umanistica 26 (1983), pp.
1–25; J. Contreni, ‘The Irish in the Western
CarolingianEmpire (According to James F. Kenney and Bern,
Bürgerbibliothek 363)’, in H. Löwe (ed.),
Die Iren und Europa im früheren Mittelalter
Pursuing enemies to death in France between the ninth and the eleventh centuries
Carolingianempire’, TRHS 5th series 35 (1985), pp.
75–94, at p. 91. A recent book of essays has advocated the
use of the terms ‘intracultural’ and
‘transcultural’ wars: see in particular S. Morillo,
‘A general typology of transcultural wars – the early
Middle Ages and beyond’, in H-H. Kortüm (ed.),
Transcultural Wars from the Middle Ages to the 21st
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock
–33 – translated in C. Hammer, Charlemagne’s Months and their Bavarian Labors: The Politics of the Seasons in the CarolingianEmpire (Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1997), pp. 53–70; Vita sancti Geraldi Auriliacensis , ed. A.-M. Bultot-Verleysen (Brussels: Société des Bollandistes, 2009), p. 168.
Miracula Sancti Remacli , p. 697.
19 See M. Lauwers, ‘Le “travail” sans la domination?’, in Dierkens, Schroeder and Wilkin (eds), Penser la paysannerie médiévale , pp. 303–32; cf. P. Freedman, Images of the Medieval Peasant (Stanford, CA: Stanford University
of the Carolingianempire brought
an end to direct alliances between St-Arnoul and this dynasty. Yet
the community’s ties to the ‘Carolingian’ aspect of its history
remained vital, despite the emergence of new and competing lineages.
Through women, eighth-century memorial practice had created
ties among disparate, legendary founders and contemporary religious
and dynastic interests; in later eras, the monks of St-Arnoul employed
representations of Hildegarde and other women to form the basis
of new practices that constructed narratives
, Swabia, Bavaria, and
Lorraine – which included the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg
on today’s map). They did not, however, prove to be durable territories.
Election of kings by the nobility in the CarolingianEmpire was a
Germanic influence that complemented the Roman administrative institutions adapted to the local conditions. This meant that the king was
more primus unter pares, and that the kingdom represented a central
authority versus particularistic tendencies.2 The empire followed this tradition of election in the selection of emperors by the stem dukes
in 1625. One emblem from that year figured the marriage as the
entwining of the rose and the fleur-de-lis.
21 seraph’s] referring to one of the Seraphim, biblical creatures with six wings (see
23 Parnassus hill] in classical mythology thought to be a source of poetic inspiration.
29 Charlemagne] founder of the CarolingianEmpire. Here, a figure for Charles I.
33–4] Charles II was crowned King of Scotland on 1 January 1651.
34 His grandsire’s] referring to James VI of Scotland and I of England; Charles II’s
p aternal grandfather.
accompanied Ottonian forays into the area
even reached eastern Saxony, where Thietmar duly recorded them, along
with his account of Otto II’s disastrous defeat in Calabria, an
event that had a dramatic impact on German public opinion and further
destabilized south Italian political relations. 51
As with most medieval emperors, the
model for the Ottonians generally derived from the CarolingianEmpire