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Simon Corcoran

II: Christian Marriage and Political Power in the Carolingian World , trans. T.  M. Guest (Ithaca, 2010), pp.  82–3; A. Firey, A Contrite Heart: Prosecution and Redemption in the Carolingian Empire (Leiden, 2009), pp.  9–60. 97 Trial by ordeal was not usually approved, although sometimes supervised, by the Church at this time: see R. Bartlett, Trial by Fire and Water: the Medieval Judicial Ordeal (Oxford, 1986), especially pp.  70–5 on ninth-century critics; F. McAuley, ‘Canon law and the end of the ordeal’, Oxford Journal of Legal

in Hincmar of Rheims
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European integration as a system of conflict resolution in the Franco-German relationship (1950–63)
Boyka Stefanova

integration to European politics and societies. A specific feature of the Franco-German relationship is the historical continuity of enmity and war. Rivalry dates back to the division of Charlemagne’s Carolingian Empire in the early ninth century and the creation of the contested middle realm of Lorraine. Later the Treaty of Westphalia gave France limited control over Alsace and

in The Europeanisation of conflict resolution
Defining the boundaries of Carolingian Christianity
Matthew Innes

in Francia 2 (1974), and for the vital familial political context of the first decade of Pippin’s reign, P. Fouracre, The Age of Charles Martel (London, 2000), pp. 155–74. 5 On the underlying social process, see the still-seminal T. Reuter, ‘Plunder and tribute in the Carolingian Empire

in Frankland
Paul Kershaw

the manuscript as a whole include S. Gavinelli, ‘Per un’enciclopedia Carolingia (codex Bernese 363)’, Italia Medioevale e Umanistica 26 (1983), pp. 1–25; J. Contreni, ‘The Irish in the Western Carolingian Empire (According to James F. Kenney and Bern, Bürgerbibliothek 363)’, in H. Löwe (ed.), Die Iren und Europa im früheren Mittelalter

in Frankland
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Pursuing enemies to death in France between the ninth and the eleventh centuries
John Gillingham

Carolingian empire’, TRHS 5th series 35 (1985), pp. 75–94, at p. 91. A recent book of essays has advocated the use of the terms ‘intracultural’ and ‘transcultural’ wars: see in particular S. Morillo, ‘A general typology of transcultural wars – the early Middle Ages and beyond’, in H-H. Kortüm (ed.), Transcultural Wars from the Middle Ages to the 21st

in Frankland
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Collective action in rural settlements
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

–33 – translated in C. Hammer, Charlemagne’s Months and their Bavarian Labors: The Politics of the Seasons in the Carolingian Empire (Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1997), pp. 53–70; Vita sancti Geraldi Auriliacensis , ed. A.-M. Bultot-Verleysen (Brussels: Société des Bollandistes, 2009), p. 168. 18 Miracula Sancti Remacli , p. 697. 19 See M. Lauwers, ‘Le “travail” sans la domination?’, in Dierkens, Schroeder and Wilkin (eds), Penser la paysannerie médiévale , pp. 303–32; cf. P. Freedman, Images of the Medieval Peasant (Stanford, CA: Stanford University

in Neighbours and strangers
Laywomen in monastic spaces
Susannah Crowder

of the Carolingian empire brought an end to direct alliances between St-Arnoul and this dynasty. Yet the community’s ties to the ‘Carolingian’ aspect of its history 164 Performing women remained vital, despite the emergence of new and competing lineages. Through women, eighth-century memorial practice had created ties among disparate, legendary founders and contemporary religious and dynastic interests; in later eras, the monks of St-Arnoul employed representations of Hildegarde and other women to form the basis of new practices that constructed narratives

in Performing women
Arthur B. Gunlicks

, Swabia, Bavaria, and Lorraine – which included the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg on today’s map). They did not, however, prove to be durable territories. Election of kings by the nobility in the Carolingian Empire was a Germanic influence that complemented the Roman administrative institutions adapted to the local conditions. This meant that the king was more primus unter pares, and that the kingdom represented a central authority versus particularistic tendencies.2 The empire followed this tradition of election in the selection of emperors by the stem dukes

in The Länder and German federalism
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Andrew McRae and John West

in 1625. One emblem from that year figured the marriage as the entwining of the rose and the fleur-de-lis.  21 seraph’s] referring to one of the Seraphim, biblical creatures with six wings (see Isaiah 6:2).  23 Parnassus hill] in classical mythology thought to be a source of poetic inspiration.  29 Charlemagne] founder of the Carolingian Empire. Here, a figure for Charles I.  33–4] Charles II was crowned King of Scotland on 1 January 1651. 34 His grandsire’s] referring to James VI of Scotland and I of England; Charles II’s p­ aternal grandfather.  40 45 50

in Literature of the Stuart successions
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Thietmar, bishop and chronicler
David A. Warner

accompanied Ottonian forays into the area even reached eastern Saxony, where Thietmar duly recorded them, along with his account of Otto II’s disastrous defeat in Calabria, an event that had a dramatic impact on German public opinion and further destabilized south Italian political relations. 51 As with most medieval emperors, the model for the Ottonians generally derived from the Carolingian Empire

in Ottonian Germany