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Bryan Fanning

contemporary English verse to produce an authentic piece of Gaelic literature rooted in the society he came from: His language – that is its principal glory – is also a complete break with literary Irish. It is the spoken Irish of Clare … What Merriman aimed at was something that had never been guessed at in Gaelic Ireland; a perfectly proportioned work of art on a contemporary subject, with every detail subordinated to the central theme.33 Yet Merriman, ‘the intellectual Protestant’ and schoolteacher-farmer who somehow ‘knew as much about Lawrence and Gide as he knew of

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Bryan Fanning

perspectives, subordinated a pre-Enlightenment Gaelic Ireland to an imported modernity. In its crudest form the conflict was one between isolationists who sought to protect Ireland’s authentic culture, however understood, from outside contamination and their intellectual opponents. The politics of cultural nationalism since the death of O’Connell had presented the Gaelic revival as a cultural restoration. But Tierney on one side and O’Faoláin on the other acknowledged that what had been attempted was a ‘fake’ restoration, a reconstruction based on an idealised

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin

volume contains Colm Lennon’s essay on Peter White’s school in Kilkenny, alerting the reader to the practicalities of the language learning which makes scholarship and translation possible, and Clare Carroll’s account of Irish clerics in Rome who were in the thick of sophisticated theological arguments but also preserved and furthered Gaelic linguistic scholarship. Lennon’s research on the culture of the English-speaking Pale complements Mícheál Mac Craith’s and Brendan Bradshaw’s on Gaelic Ireland, while Carroll’s points to a well-equipped diaspora.5  2 Crown surveys

in Dublin
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Writing for the stage in Restoration Dublin
Stephen Austin Kelly

therefore forgive his and others’ past 22 The term ‘Mere Irish’ was not, as it is sometimes supposed, a pejorative term. ‘Mere’ in this context means ‘pure-blooded’ or ‘whole’ and was used to distinguish the Gaelic Irish from the English-Irish or Old English. The dismissive connotation of ‘mere’ in the contemporary sense (as in, for example, the phrase ‘a mere child’) did not exist in the early modern period. 23 John Kerrigan, ‘Boyle’s Ireland and the British problem, 1641–1679’, in David J. Baker and Willy Maley (eds), British identities and English Renaissance

in Dublin
Eucharistic controversy and the English origins of Irish Catholic identity, 1550–51
James Murray

reasons for St Leger’s frustration was the privy council’s refusal to endorse a proposal he had put forward to sanction the use of a Latin version of the English communion service in Ireland. Latin, of course, was not just the lingua franca of scholars, statesmen and ecclesiastics, but it was also the main language through which the Dublin administration communicated with the Gaelic Irish.12 Its employment would have enabled St Leger to introduce the new service ‘where the inhabitants understand not the English tongue’ in a comfortingly familiar form, and thus reduce

in Irish Catholic identities
Fintan Lane

imposition, with rapid cultural as well as economic implications, that ran contrary to the natural inclinations of the Irish people, who he claimed enjoyed a non-hierarchical, communistic clan-based society until as late as the seventeenth century, though it was under pressure from the time of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I: ‘As the dispersion of the clans, consummated by [Oliver] Cromwell, finally completed the ruin of Gaelic Ireland, all the higher education of Irishmen thenceforward ran in this foreign groove, and was coloured with this foreign colouring’ (Connolly, 1910

in Mobilising classics
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Provincial unrest in Ireland before 1641
David Edwards

, intent on maintaining the impression that everything remained under control. In 1639, by force of circumstances, as the crisis escalated across the three Stuart kingdoms, the facade slipped. He knew a Scottish Covenanter army invading Ulster would have attracted the support of disaffected elements from several areas of the country – not only the Scottish settlers in Ulster, the group invariably identified as his chief security worry, but also from angry Gaelic-Irish and Anglo-Irish in parts of Ulster, Leinster, the Midlands and Connacht. For all of his customary

in Ireland, 1641
Jenny Wormald

English crown caused more difficulties. To the dismay and astonishment of his leading English subjects, the new king refused to be straitjacketed into the role of being only monarch of England and, indeed, insisted on drawing on his Scottish experience. It was even worse because James, as a consequence of dealing with his own highly problematic Gaelic population, part of which had long political, military, marital and cultural contacts with the Gaelic Irish, thought that he understood Ireland better than the English government. Yet he may well have been right in this

in The plantation of Ulster
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The plantation of Ulster: ideas and ideologies
Éamonn Ó Ciardha and Micheál Ó Siochrú

their place. 13 Her Protestant sister, Elizabeth I, sanctioned plantation projects in east and southeast Ulster by the Devereux earls of Essex and Sir Thomas Smith. 14 In the 1580s, in the aftermath of the Desmond rebellion, the large estates of the attainted earl formed the nucleus of the Munster plantation, which collapsed so dramatically in 1598, at the height of the Nine Years War, only to be resurrected in the aftermath of Hugh O’Neill’s defeat. 15 The systematic dispossession of large numbers of Gaelic Irish landowners necessitated the creation of

in The plantation of Ulster
John Milton on the failure of the Ulster plantation
Nicholas McDowell

Confederate Association, made up of Gaelic Irish and ‘Old English’ settlers, and Charles I’s lord lieutenant in Ireland, James Butler, Marquis of Ormond (1610–88). Ormond’s army was joined in the opening months of 1649 by Cavaliers fleeing England after defeat in the second civil war and the execution of Charles I on 30 January. A further ‘complication’ was the horror of the mainly Scottish Presbyterian settlers in Ulster at the regicide and their antagonism to an English republican regime dominated by Independents, generally more tolerant of sectarianism and opposed to a

in The plantation of Ulster