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Patrick O’Leary

be considered British, the very term Anglo-Irish, a description of themselves accepted by upper-middle-class and landed Protestants, 3 implied an identification with Britain and, in practice, entailed a tendency towards having an English accent and education. 4 Michael McConville, in explaining that the Old English component of Catholic Ireland had long been combined with the Gaelic Irish into a cultural

in Servants of the empire
State building in Cromwellian Ireland
Jennifer Wells

of thousands of Protestants slaughtered eight years earlier, when, in October 1641, members of the Gaelic Irish elite, disgruntled by years of maltreatment suffered at the hands of English officials in Dublin, launched a rebellion in Ulster with the aim of negotiating religious toleration from a position of strength. This narrowly targeted, elite exploit soon tapped into wider discontent and spread across the whole of the island. Of more immediate concern to the Rump was Charles I’s heir, Charles Stuart, and the threat of a royalist invasion of England staged in

in Connecting centre and locality
Rees Davies

’ (as in n. 17) at p. 349. Ireland: H. G. Richardson and G. O. Sayles, The Irish Parliament in the Middle Ages (Philadelphia, 1952), p. 292; Chartularies of St. Mary’s Dublin, ed. J. T. Gilbert (Rolls Series, 1884–6), I, p. 369; Statutes and ordinances . . . of the Parliaments of Ireland, John-Henry V, ed. H. F. Berry (Dublin, 1907), pp. 265, 281–91. 20 Robin Frame, English Lordship in Ireland 1318–61 (Oxford, 1982), pp. 28–36; Katharine Simms, From Kings to Warlords. The Changing Political Structure of Gaelic Ireland in the Later Middle Ages (Woodbridge

in Law, laity and solidarities
Simon Walker

Correspondence of Thomas Bekynton , ed. G. Williams (2 vols., RS, 1872), i. 285. 12 D. Johnstone, ‘Richard II and the Submission of Gaelic Ireland’, Irish Historical Studies , xxii (1980), p. 2; Anglo-Norman Letters and Petitions , ed. M. D. Legge (Oxford, 1941), p. 48. 13 E. Curtis, Richard II in Ireland (Oxford, 1927), p. 132. 14 Thomas Walsingham, Historia Anglicana , ed. T. Riley (2 vols., RS, 1864), ii. 239. 15 The Westminster Chronicle, 1381–1394 , ed. L. C. Hector and B. F. Harvey (Oxford, 1982), pp. 158, 436–8; The Diplomatic Correspondence of

in Political culture in later medieval England
Abstract only
Moira Maguire

the independent Irish state: “It shall be the first duty of the Government of the Republic to make provision for the physical, mental, and spiritual well-being of the children to secure that no child shall suffer hunger or cold from lack of food, clothing, or shelter, but that all shall be provided with the means and facilities requisite for their education and training as citizens of a Free and Gaelic Ireland.”2 Although the role and responsibility of parents was not explicitly mentioned in the Democratic Programme, there is no reason to assume its architects

in Precarious childhood in post-independence Ireland
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Settler colonies, ethno-religious violence and historical documentation: comparative reflections on Southeast Asia and Ireland
Ben Kiernan

joining forces with the Gaelic Irish rebels in the Confederacy.65 Of course, Coote was not the only perpetrator of anti-Irish violence. In the 1650s, additional examinants also told the Cromwellian High Court of Justice of the ‘generall Murder’ of Catholics at Island Magee and Carrickfergus in early 1642. One examinant reported that ‘they and the rest of the Irish were forced to shelter themselves in houses and that they were taken out and murthered but how or by whom he cannot declare’.66 Several other possible witnesses were also questioned about ‘the murther Comitted

in Ireland, 1641
Britons and Irish imperial culture in nineteenth-century India
Barry Crosbie

promote the interests of a particular Gaelic Irish dimension within Anglo-Indian society. They ministered to the East India Company’s many Gaelic-speaking Irish soldiers; set about introducing a reconstructed parochial system in India which was, in part, modelled along post-emancipation Irish lines, through the building of churches and other ecclesiastical infrastructure; and promoted the education of

in The cultural construction of the British world
Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert, and Jonathan Mackman

only involved longer journeys but also brought them into greater competition with continental rivals coming the other way, is perhaps more understandable. It would also seem that the majority of Irish people living in England were ‘Anglo-Irish’, rather than Gaelic Irish. Towns of origin are only rarely identifiable for the Irish people included in our main sources, but those that are known were mainly within areas of stronger English rule. John de Swerdes, taxed in Hereford throughout the early 1440s, was presumably from Swords, near Dublin, while three Waterford

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
Ian W. Archer

Present State of Ireland, (ed.) W. L. Renwick (Oxford, 1971), p. 165. 46 A. J. Horning, ‘“Dwelling houses in the old Irish barbarous manner”: archaeological evidence for Gaelic architecture in an Ulster plantation village’, in P. J. Duffy, D. Edwards, and E. Fitzpatrick (ed.), Gaelic Ireland, C1250–C1650: Land, Lordship, and Settlement (Dublin, 2001), pp. 375–96. 47 Moody, Londonderry Plantation, p. 197. 48 R. J. Hunter, ‘Towns in the Ulster plantation’, Studia Hibernica, 11 (1971), 40–56. See also R. Gillespie, ‘Small towns in Ulster, 1600

in The plantation of Ulster
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Ireland and plantation in Jacobean literature
Willy Maley

primarily along the lines of regional Gaelic Irish lordships, memorializing a social hierarchy that had been effectively displaced from Ulster by 1610.’ 58 Speed ‘follows other early modern historiographers in justifying the conquest of Ireland by analogy with the Roman conquest of Britain’, while ‘William Camden concluded, “a blessed and happy turne had it beene for Ireland, if it had at any time been under [Roman] subjection”’. 59 David Scott Wilson-Okamura points out that both Sir Thomas Smith and Sir John Davies ‘took Virgil’s description of the colony at Carthage

in The plantation of Ulster