Reading New Testament women in early modern England, 1550–1700
Victoria Brownlee and Laura Gallagher
the Anglican writer Antony Stafford’s work, The femall
glory: or, The life, and death of our Blessed Lad y
( 1635 ),
demonstrates that Mary remained an important, yet contentious,
subject in Protestant circles. Exemplifying a brand of Marian
devotion that had by the 1630s become associated with Henrietta
Maria, the Catholic wife of KingCharlesI, Stafford’s work
traditionally war, plague and famine.
32 Die: a pun on orgasm as a little death; here the spiritual coupling results in a
33 King: CharlesI, whose execution in January 1649 marked the start of the English
Commonwealth, which ended in 1660 with the restoration of his son, Charles II.
34 Lower: frown.
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Advising on body and spirit
They’re children to that Prince of might;
Who is the Prince of peace behight.35
Do not with war my Babes affrights,
In smiling peace is their delight,
My Prince by yielding won
strong temptation excepted), One to whom Christ
was dear, and everything that seemed to have anything of Christ
stamped on it, without distinctions of this or that Sect. Whence I have
heard knowing men say (and I believe truly) That he was apt to indulge
pretenders to Holiness, to the apparent hurt of his outward interest,
as fearful to beat down anything which God would have stand: And
hath been heard to say, That there were few Sects among Christians,
in which something of God was not to be found, which must not be
59 Late King: CharlesI, who was executed on 30
‘Republican’ defences of monarchy at the Restoration
20 Jermyn, Culpeper and Ashburnham to KingCharlesI, 6 August 1646, in State Papers
Collected by Edward, Earl of Clarendon, ed. by Richard Scrope and Thomas Monkhouse,
3 vols (London, 1767–86), ii, 244–45.
21 George Starkey, The Dignity of Kingship Asserted: In Answer to Mr. Milton’s Ready and
Easie Way to Establish a Free Common-wealth (London, 1660), pp. 76–77.
22 Ibid., p. 97.
23 On this, see the valuable essay by James Hankins, ‘Exclusivist Republicanism and the
Non-Monarchical Republic’, Political Theory, 38.4 (2010), 452–82.
they so happily enjoyed. 31
Moreover, during the reign of KingCharlesI, Irish Catholics had been ruled
over by a government that was most ‘sweet tempered, and carried on with
great lenity and moderation’.32 The authorities had even allowed Catholics
to enjoy ‘the private exercise of all their religious rites and ceremonies . . .
without any manner of disturbance’.33 Indeed, claimed Temple, the condition
of the country was so placid that:
the ancient animosities and hatred which the Irish had ever observed to bear
unto the English nation, they seemed
Catalan, Portuguese and Castilian pamphlets on the Confederate War in Ireland
Patrick came to that kingdom’ for more than just his military skills.
By the time a third pamphlet – the Relaçam dos successos – appeared in
1646, it was providing a news update from Ireland, based on the assumption
that the readers already knew about the early stages of the war.32 The update
began with an account of the Catholic Confederation’s negotiations with KingCharlesI, which the pamphleteer thought had been successfully concluded.
The upbeat assessment claimed that even though the confederates had been
• hiram morgan •
forced to concede toleration of
and the Genevan extreme by accepting Zwingli’s concept of the bread merely signifying or pointing to the body of
Christ but insisting that Christ was at least spiritually present in
the host (cf. Muir, 1997: 171–5). However, there is evidence that,
even as late as 1634, the question of the Eucharist had not been
satisfactorily settled. In a clearly rhetorical question, Robert
Skinner, in a sermon preached before KingCharlesI at Whitehall
in that year, wonders: ‘Is it not deep infidelity and heresy, to think
Christ to be absent from his body and blood?’, and
Located on the River Aire, Leeds in medieval times had been home to an agricultural manor and a Cistercian monastery. By the thirteenth century, the wool clip of Kirkstall Abbey, combined with the softness of the local water, led to the growth of the wool cloth industry. 16 In the sixteenth century, Leeds surpassed York and Beverley in woollen production. The town received a charter of incorporation from KingCharlesI in 1626, and the first local governing body was established. During the eighteenth century, the local coalfield was developed and the economy
(traditionally the party of indefeasible hereditary right) who had accepted the Revolution and sworn allegiance in 1689 had salved their consciences over the plain fact of William and Mary’s usurpation with the thought that it would soon pass. William and Mary had been married since 1678 without producing any children. Their marriage was therefore unlikely to prove the seed of a new dynasty. Hence when William died either Mary or her sister Anne, both staunch Anglicans in the direct line of descent from the Martyr-KingCharlesI, would succeed, and indefeasible hereditary
to comprehend. Even his supporters seem exasperated by
their star witness. Thomas Lee, who during these years formed part
of the emerging Whig grouping, and who was a firm believer in the
plot,32 compares Oates’s outburst (unfavourably) to the proceedings
of the Long Parliament – the Parliament that actually waged war
against KingCharlesI. Henry Coventry, by contrast, consistently
opposed the Exclusion Bill, and would therefore come to be thought
of as a Tory,33 and he takes the opportunity to compare Oates to
a prostitute, perhaps hinting that it is Oates who