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Royalist hospital provision during the First Civil War
Eric Gruber von Arni

, Waggon-Master-General to King Charles I (Oxfordshire Record Society, 42, 1961), pp. 54–5. 46 Philip (ed.), Journal, II, pp. 114–5. 47 Ibid. 48 Philip (ed.), Journal, I, pp. 26–140, and II, pp 146–53. 49 W. Bradbrooke, ‘The Church during the Commonwealth in the Abingdon Deanery’, Berkshire Archaeological Journal, 37 (1934), 19–32. 50 Council of War to Matthew Bradley, 29 July 1643: BL, Harleian MS 6,852, fo. 163. 51 The River Severn was one of the King’s main communication routes at this time. 52 W. O. Hassell, ‘Typhus in Oxfordshire Billets, 1643

in Battle-scarred
Margret Fetzer

and the Genevan extreme by accepting Zwingli’s concept of the bread merely signifying or pointing to the body of Christ but insisting that Christ was at least spiritually present in the host (cf. Muir, 1997: 171–5). However, there is evidence that, even as late as 1634, the question of the Eucharist had not been satisfactorily settled. In a clearly rhetorical question, Robert Skinner, in a sermon preached before King Charles I at Whitehall in that year, wonders: ‘Is it not deep infidelity and heresy, to think Christ to be absent from his body and blood?’, and

in John Donne’s Performances
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Murray Stewart Leith and Duncan Sim

kingdom of Scotland were bound). In the late 1630s, the Covenanters firmly opposed King Charles I’s ideas of religion, especially his imposition of a ‘new’ prayer book, and his preference for appointing bishops. However, in many ways, the outbreak of open hostilities was part of a wider dissatisfaction with the seeming lessening of Scottish influence on the King, since the Union of the Crowns. His father, James VI and I, had departed to England to take up the English Crown upon the death of Elizabeth I of England, but had promised to come back to Scotland regularly

in Scotland
Richard Bellings, James Shirley and Henry Burnell
Marie-Louise Coolahan

on the Amazon queen Landgartha, the play dramatises her military alliance with Reyner, king of Denmark, against the king of Sweden. Having defeated the latter, Landgartha marries Reyner but is betrayed when he leaves her for his Danish lover, Vraca. The play has been read allegorically by critics, with Reyner and the Danes standing in for King Charles I, the Swedes representing the Scots and sometimes the New English, and Landgartha and the Amazons (in particular the character of Marfisa, who wears native Irish dress) deputising for the Old English.48 Despite the

in Dublin
‘Republican’ defences of monarchy at the Restoration
Glenn Burgess

and commonwealth 20 Jermyn, Culpeper and Ashburnham to King Charles I, 6 August 1646, in State Papers Collected by Edward, Earl of Clarendon, ed. by Richard Scrope and Thomas Monkhouse, 3 vols (London, 1767–​86), ii, 244–​45. 21 George Starkey, The Dignity of Kingship Asserted: In Answer to Mr. Milton’s Ready and Easie Way to Establish a Free Common-​wealth (London, 1660), pp. 76–​77. 22 Ibid., p. 97. 23 On this, see the valuable essay by James Hankins, ‘Exclusivist Republicanism and the Non-​Monarchical Republic’, Political Theory, 38.4 (2010), 452–​82. 24

in From Republic to Restoration
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Reading New Testament women in early modern England, 1550–1700
Victoria Brownlee and Laura Gallagher

the Anglican writer Antony Stafford’s work, The femall glory: or, The life, and death of our Blessed Lad y ( 1635 ), demonstrates that Mary remained an important, yet contentious, subject in Protestant circles. Exemplifying a brand of Marian devotion that had by the 1630s become associated with Henrietta Maria, the Catholic wife of King Charles I, Stafford’s work

in Biblical women in early modern literary culture 1550–1700
Alison Findlay

, they refused to pass the death sentences, and referred the matter to King Charles I. The condemned were held in Lancaster Castle. On 16 May the Privy Council summoned ‘some of the principall and most notorious offenders’ to London at the King’s command. Not having the names of the supposed malefactors caused a delay, and on 23 May the Lancaster judges were obliged to remind the King and Privy Council of the case. By the end of the month, more information had been supplied and the Council summoned Frances Dicconson, Margaret Johnson, Alice

in The Lancashire witches
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His life and cultural interests
Cesare Cuttica

involved in the Levy of Arms called by sir William Twysden in 1595. Active on many fronts, he was finally appointed High sheriff of Kent and was knighted. edward was a devout man9 and owned properties all over Kent as well as a house in Knightrider street, London. He died in 1629 leaving a very detailed will in which he promised his son Henry £40, provided the latter commenced his ‘M. A. in university of cambridge’.10 On 10 February 1632 a letter patent of King charles I authorised sir robert to enter into inheritance after his father’s death.11 sir edward Filmer

in Sir Robert Filmer (1588-1653) and the patriotic monarch
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Cathryn Spence

. Commissioned by King Charles I  in order to raise money for the stipends for church ministers in the burgh, this tax was assessed (but never collected) between 1634 and 1636 and the roll lists the household head (both landlord and tenant) and value of every building in the burgh. The resulting record features five columns of information devoted, in turn, to landlords, tenants, a description of each property, the value of each property, and the annuity it was determined by the assessors the household should pay, based on the value of the property. Significantly, the list was

in Women, credit, and debt in early modern Scotland
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Union and separation
David Edwards

controlled in 1642. We now know that printed ‘reports’ of occurrences in Ireland had little to do with actual developments in the country. Rather (besides making money for the publishers) the ‘reports’ helped bolster parliament’s position in an escalating constitutional crisis in England in which it, not the king, Charles I, could pose as the architect of a new political and military understanding with the Covenanter regime in Scotland. Its propaganda had no place for news of Anglo-Scottish hostilities in Ireland as Anglo-Scottish relations on the British mainland inched

in The Scots in early Stuart Ireland