Death in the Age
of Sail: The Passage to Australia (London, 2006), p. 23). Stephen Constantine also
estimates that there were a minimum of 19,962,638 British emigrants between 1815
and 1938 (S. Constantine, ‘Introduction: empiremigration and imperial harmony’,
in S. Constantine (ed.), Emigrants and Empire: British Settlement in the Dominions
between the Wars (Manchester, 1990), p. 1).
2 J. Belich, Replenishing the Earth: The Settler Revolution and the Rise of the Anglo-World,
1783 –1939 (Oxford, 2009), p. 58; M. Harper and S. Constantine, Migration and Empire
African veldt and
Australian outback. This would not only reduce the number of citizens competing
for scarce employment in Great Britain but would also create prosperity by generating profits overseas which could be channelled back into purchasing British
goods. Conservative support for Empiremigration also reflected uneasiness over
the increasingly urban nature of the British population and their desire ‘to restore
rural life and values’.75
The Primrose League promoted the ideals of Empire settlement. Numerous articles pointed to the unsettled rural areas of Australia
platitudes or ritual incantations’. 100 Despite the constraints of the
domestic political scene, serious doubt remains as to the sincerity of
both Botha and Smuts to support British immigration. Their public
pronouncements were guarded and vague, steeped in the knowledge that any
commitment to empiremigration would lose votes in the backveldt.
Rhetoric aside, this determination to pursue a course of inaction for
comparison prevailed in Australia, too ; the strongest common
trait between the masses in the two countries was suspicion of Empiremigration.
Even Australian governments and officials formally
supportive of migration were conscious enough of political feeling and
economic pressures to impose considerable restraints. This was most
obvious in restricting assistance to people ‘nominated’ or
The introduction of the
ex-servicemen’s assisted-passage scheme in 1919 and the Empire
Settlement Act of 1922 signalled the Imperial government’s
conversion to a faith in Empiremigration as a solution to several
apparent domestic and international difficulties. But it was
acknowledged that effective policies depended on the active cooperation
of the dominion governments
little headway in Ottawa. While officials promised to give the
schemes ‘every consideration’, the
‘Government’s attitude was one of caution’ given
the practical difficulties. Other supporters of renewed immigration
included such patriotic groups as the Canadian Corps Association and
IODE, the so-called ‘Empire Policy Group’ of
Conservative British MPs, as well as the ‘Empire
redistribute them in the Empire, while at
the same time encouraging the exploitation of under-developed imperial
Amery’s concept of state-aided Empiremigration and land
settlement, adumbrated at a conference in London early in 1921, was
therefore basically a scheme of overseas relief for the United
Kingdom’s unemployed, clothed in the vocabulary of enlightened
Corona (August 1962), p. 8.
Jean P. Smith, ‘“The women's branch of the Commonwealth Relations Office”: the Society for the Overseas Settlement of British Women and the long life of empiremigration’, Women's History Review , 25:4 (2016), 529.
women presidents of the NUT were Miss I. Cleghorn, MA (1911), Miss E. R. Conway CBE (1918) and Miss J. F. Wood MA (1920) (NUT Annual Report, 1929, Warwick Modern Records).
13 She became an MP again in the 1945 Labour landslide and served in Attlee’s government.
14 For attitudes towards black performers among London’s intelligentsia, see Bush 1999 : 211–14. See also Evans 2019 : 165–7.
15 Bush 1999 : 215.
16 Marson 1933 .
17 Marson’s journalism in the magazine that she founded and edited in Jamaica, the Cosmopolitan , shows a desire for ‘cross-empire
and Andrew Thompson ‘ Introduction ’, in Empire, Migration and Identity in the British World , ed. Kent Fedorowich and Andrew Thompson ( Manchester : Manchester University Press , 2013 ), pp. 1 – 41 . See also Philip Bonner , Jonathan Hyslop and Lucien van der Walt , ‘ Rethinking Worlds of Labour: Southern African Labour History in International Context ’, African Studies , 66 : 2 – 3 ( 2007 ), p. 139 . For flows of African labourers across national boundaries, see van Onselen, Chibaro ; Brian Raftopoulos and Ian Phimister