issues relating to the family and sexuality, Pentecostal churches and their representatives within local legislatures have tended to adopt traditional positions akin to those promoted by the Christian Right. In a few cases Christian Right involvement was more direct, as in the case of Pat Robertson whose ostensibly humanitarianOperation Lovelift effectively subsidised Guatemalan President Rios Montt’s ‘pacification’ campaigns. 12 Yet, as Freston suggests, the ‘fragmentation of evangelicalism means its direct political impact is always smaller than might be hoped or
Human Rights Litigation in U.S. Courts , 2nd edition (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2008), 434.
15 “Office of Global Justice,” accessed October 1, 2014. www.state.gov/j/gcj/index.htm .
16 See “HumanitarianOperations,” accessed April 25, 2014. www.state.gov/t/pm/iso/c21542.htm .
17 See The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Federation of Russia, “The Report on the Human Rights Situation in the European Union,” December 6, 2012, accessed August 1, 2014. www.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/0/F6501F42C40A25EE44257ACC004971FC . For analysis of the report see
manage a conflict that had the potential to de-stabilize the region. 29
The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) authorized by Resolution 794 was comprised predominantly of US troops with approximately 20 other states contributing smaller contingents. It began arriving in December 1992, and at its height was made up of about 37,000 troops under US command, authorized to use all necessary means to secure areas for humanitarianoperations. The success of UNITAF is debatable. While it was able to ensure the delivery of some humanitarian aid, it was not able to operate in all
into border regimes? Is the humanitarian provision of care to the refugees and border-crossers incompatible with racism? With regard to the latter questions the analysis builds upon the current scholarly debates on the ambivalence inherent in humanitarianism in relation to humanitarianoperations at the borders; ‘the paradoxes of humanitarian rhetoric’ in the words of Giuseppe Campesi. 18 These derive from diverse factors, including the involvement of a large range of actors (including EU and state actors, and transnational solidarity agents) and the fact that at
: Macmillan, 1930), p. 4.
59 Davide Rodogno, ‘Non-state Actors’ HumanitarianOperations in the Aftermath of the First World War: The Case of the Near East Relief’, in F. Klose (ed.), The Emergence of Humanitarian Intervention: Ideas and Practice from the Nineteenth Century to the Present (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 185–207, at p. 191.
60 Ann Marie Wilson, ‘In the Name of God, Civilization, and Humanity: The United States and the Armenian Massacres of the 1890s’, Le Mouvement Social , 2 (2009), pp. 27–44.
reprisal’ to be
‘covered with the veneer of a humanitarianoperation’. The
Independent tried to square this circle in its 22 October
editorial, which maintained that ‘Dealing with the humanitarian
crisis is part of, not a diversion from, the campaign’, but
chiefly in that doing so would help in the ‘war for world
opinion’. The US should ‘attend to the refugee
led to their flight, could now ask for the recognition of their refugee status on the grounds of religious, political or racial persecution.
Assistance for the refugee population was also one of the main problems in Vietnam, where humanitarianoperations were an integral part of the United States’ participation in the conflict. The big US NGOs, which already had a special relationship with the Washington authorities for the post-war reconstruction programmes in Korea, played a major role in carrying out relief work for Vietnamese civilians. The most
‘humanitarian and non-governmental organisations’,221 ‘humanitarianoperations’,222 ‘humanitarian and disaster relief ’ bodies,223 Oxfam, MSF, Red Cross,224 USAID or the United Nations225 (see also
Herbst 2013: 287; Singer 2006; Spearing 2008: 364). Companies such as TOR
International, for example, emphasize that they are ‘at the forefront of humanitarian aid assistance’.226 As Daniel Hellinger argues in this respect, PMSCs ‘recognize not only an opportunity to do business in humanitarianoperations and
peacekeeping, they believe such operations would help legitimate their
representing ‘the greatest failure in the history of ICRC’ 20 the Holocaust opened a deep wound in the very way in which humanitarianism had been thought of and enacted by one of its main interpreters. The significance of this wound reached far beyond the individual organisation’s issues.
At any rate, the implications of the wartime experience were manifold and in certain ways changed the characteristics of the humanitarianoperations and their main players. The war catalysed the circuits of transnational solidarity that already existed and gave an impulse to
Juvenile actors and humanitarian sentiment in the 1940s
Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), established in 1946, represent
the organisation’s global humanitarianoperations during and
immediately following the war. Maurice Pate, UNICEF’s first
Executive Director, made his candidacy conditional on the
organisation’s committing to proide relief to children from the
former Axis countries (see M. Black, The Children and the