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A Vatican rag
Alana Harris

‘introduce the vernacular into portions of the mass, to replace Latin, and to widen somewhat the range of music permissible in the liturgy’, he offered this as an example of re-doing ‘liturgical music in popular song form’ so as ‘to sell the product, in this secular age’.2 The song’s notoriety in Britain was assured by Lehrer’s regular slot as resident musical satirist on the irreverent weekly comedy programme The Frost Report (1966–67), an apt companion piece to his compositions for the episode on ‘Sin’ running on 17 March 1966.3 Whether given comedic (and caustic

in Faith in the family
Jill Fitzgerald

Bible as a source but the Anglo-Saxon liturgy as well – specifically, the feast of Rogationtide. The three-day Rogation observances were an integral part of the Anglo-Saxon liturgical cycle. The attendant practices were geared towards affirming community, demarcating territorial boundaries, and purifying both physical spaces and the human soul through fasting, vigils, prayers, and, most significantly, processions throughout the countryside. Just as a saint might trace a circuit at the founding of a monastery or holy place to signal the site’s devotedness to God

in Rebel angels
Eyal Poleg

well as that of President Obama) all show these books being employed as relics from a glorified past, in whose authority those present wished to share. In late medieval England such Gospel books were becoming an archaic remnant. While they were used in liturgy and ritual, another type of Bible emerged. Adhering to a revolutionary paratext, these new full Bibles (or pandects) became a standard for Scripture, replicated in Bibles in manuscript and printed forms for centuries to come. A far cry from silver gilt and jewelled bindings of earlier texts, these were mundane

in Approaching the Bible in medieval England
A distinctive politics?
Author: Richard Taylor

English radicalism has been a deep-rooted but minority tradition in the political culture since at least the seventeenth century. The central aim of this book is to examine, in historical and political context, a range of key events and individuals that exemplify English radicalism in the twentieth century. This analysis is preceded by defining precisely what has constituted this tradition; and by the main outline of the development of the tradition from the Civil War to the end of the nineteenth century. Three of the main currents of English radicalism in the twentieth century have been the labour movement, the women’s movement and the peace movement. These are discussed in some detail, as a framework for the detailed consideration of ten key representative figures of the tradition in the twentieth century: Bertrand Russell, Sylvia Pankhurst, Ellen Wilkinson, George Orwell, E.P. Thompson, Michael Foot, Joan Maynard, Stuart Hall, Tony Benn and Nicolas Walter. The question of ‘agency’ – of how to bring about radical change in a predominantly conservative society and culture – has been a fundamental issue for English radicals. It is argued that, in the twentieth century, many of the important achievements in progressive politics have taken place in and through extra-parliamentary movements, as well as through formal political parties and organisations – the Labour Party and other socialist organisations – and on occasion, through libertarian and anarchist politics. The final chapter considers the continuing relevance of this political tradition in the early twenty-first century, and reviews its challenges and prospects.

Art, process, archaeology

This book presents a study of material images and asks how an appreciation of the making and unfolding of images and art alters archaeological accounts of prehistoric and historic societies. With contributions focusing on case studies including prehistoric Britain, Scandinavia, Iberia, the Americas and Dynastic Egypt, and including contemporary reflections on material images, it makes a novel contribution to ongoing debates relating to archaeological art and images. The book offers a New Materialist analysis of archaeological imagery, with an emphasis on considering the material character of images and their making and unfolding. The book reassesses the predominantly representational paradigm of archaeological image analysis and argues for the importance of considering the ontology of images. It considers images as processes or events and introduces the verb ‘imaging’ to underline the point that images are conditions of possibility that draw together differing aspects of the world. The book is divided into three sections: ‘Emergent images’, which focuses on practices of making; ‘Images as process’, which examines the making and role of images in prehistoric societies; and ‘Unfolding images’, which focuses on how images change as they are made and circulated. The book features contributions from archaeologists, Egyptologists, anthropologists and artists. The contributors to the book highlight the multiple role of images in prehistoric and historic societies, demonstrating that archaeologists need to recognise the dynamic and changeable character of images.

Paul Johnson

about the ECtHR, Burrowes invoked the admissibility decision of the former European Commission of Human Rights (EComHR) in Finska församlingen i Stockholm and Teuvo Hautaniemi v Sweden (1996). The case concerned a Finnish parish of the Church of Sweden in Stockholm and the chairman of its board who complained about a prohibition of the use of the liturgy of the Finnish Evangelical-​Lutheran Church. The prohibition was a consequence of a decision by the Assembly of the Church of Sweden (which is an Evangelical-​Lutheran congregation) to adopt a Finnish translation of

in Law in popular belief
Abstract only
Alison I. Beach, Shannon M.T. Li, and Samuel S. Sutherland

remain anonymous also distinguishes him from many of his better-known contemporaries. A number of internal clues, however, suggest that this remarkable author may well have been the monk who would become Abbot Gebhard I (r. 1164–1170/1173). His striking level of interest in all things liturgical – from vestments, to books, to processions – suggests that he was the community’s cantor, the individual charged with oversight of all aspects of the liturgy as well as the production and keeping of books. 12 Further, as recent studies have demonstrated, it was not uncommon

in Monastic experience in twelfth-century Germany
Carolingian local correctio and an unknown priests’ exam from the early ninth century
Carine van Rhijn

access to a library, which included the texts listed above; secondly it means that the bishop could ask the questions of his exam with some confidence, for he knew how the priest had been educated and what could therefore be expected of him. Not only did a priest need to know a whole series of texts, he also needed to own some in order to be able to do his job. Although some texts (such as the liturgy of baptism, a variety of masses and prayers) were no doubt learnt by heart as the episcopal statutes prescribed, a priest needed to be able to consult a handbook of

in Religious Franks
Textus and oath-books
Eyal Poleg

books were comprised of all books of the Old and New Testaments, especially as single-volume Bibles (pandects, explored in the following chapter) were a rarity up until the end of the twelfth century. Of the books processed, worn, or entombed in book shrines and graves, one part of the Bible stands out. The Gospels, much like in the Palm Sunday liturgy, was the book employed talismanically as a representation of Christ. Containing the crux of Christian faith, it is of little wonder that in the inner hierarchy of biblical books used talismanically the Gospel presided

in Approaching the Bible in medieval England
The Authorized Version and the Book of Common Prayer at the Restoration
David Bagchi

an old book than a new book’.10 One reason why both the Authorized Version of the Bible and the 1662 Book of Common Prayer have been victims of mistaken identity is our need to identify a definite author. Both books were in effect the products of committees, but it is difficult to accept that readers can be affected so personally and for so many centuries by an impersonal process. Cranmer, whose conscience during his last hours on earth was famously torn first one way then another, strikes us as the perfect author for a liturgy which seems at times to be

in From Republic to Restoration