The social imaginary of the London bog-house c.1660–c.1800
mistaken you soon will explore
Yet he scratches and S—s as no man did before.12
The print travelled as far as China, where it was transmogrified into
decoration on porcelain punchbowls manufactured for export.13
Back in Britain such objects featured in rowdy rituals of bibulous
masculinity;14 gentlemen doubtless enjoyed the transgressive frisson
of drinking from a vessel which suggested substances that were not
Contained in the transnational recensions of this image was the
conviction that national difference could be reduced
: The Great War, Mallory, and the Conquest of
Everest (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2011): 537–54.
27 Sarah Macnaughtan, My War Experiences in Two Continents, ed. Mrs Lionel
Salmon [Betty Keays-Young] (London: John Murray, 1919): 257.
28 On the creation of heroic myths of warfare, see: Michael Paris, Warrior
Nation: Images of War in British Popular Culture, 1850–2000 (London: Reaktion
Books, 2000), passim; Graham Dawson, Soldier Heroes: British Adventure,
Empire and the Imagining of Masculinities (London: Routledge, 1994), passim.
29 Mary Borden, The Forbidden Zone (London
Speech and the Culture of Public Life in
the Age of Gladstone (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001).
5 D.A. Finnegan, ‘Placing Science in an Age of Oratory: Spaces of Scientific
Speech in Mid-Victorian Edinburgh,’ in D. Livingstone and C. Withers (eds),
Debate and controversy
Geographies of Nineteenth-Century Science (Chicago and London: The
University of Chicago Press, 2011), pp. 153–77, 154–6.
On the codes of conduct in parliamentary debate in Belgium: J. Hoegaerts, ‘La Voix du Pays: Masculinity, Vocal
might probably have met disappointment half way.116
The moral of this story, such as it is (the ‘Beau’ ends up in the mud, courtesy
of the ‘Tar’), is that foppish affectation is always trumped by plain honest
masculinity. Once again artificiality is made synonymous with French ‘manners’ and upon concluding his story Charles returns immediately to the issue
of his continental education. In general, he claims, the Englishman crosses
the Channel not ‘in remembrance of his own country, but to forget it; foibles and poverty he brings back in
Aborting a foetus was always a clandestine activity, and one historically
associated with women. One of the charges levelled against female midwives en masse was their alleged propensity to conduct abortion.9 This
potentially rendered the involvement of qualified practitioners in abortion an underhand, feminised failing and, where the child was allegedly
their own, implied gross betrayal of disinterested and professional
This chapter will consider charges against practitioners that entailed
their neglect, incompetence or questionable practice which
good reasons for medical men to be reticent about their mental illhealth in their public, and even private, writings. Micale has argued that
between 1790 and 1860 there was medical denial that hysteria, for
example, could be suffered by men. He sees this as part of a broader
redefinition of masculinity, such that ‘By the end of Victoria’s reign, the
spectrum of emotions deemed appropriate for adult men in Britain had
greatly diminished, as the familiar historical image of stoical insensibility and the stiff upper lip emerged and hardened.’6 Consequently
recommended as the deciding factors regarding the employability of
a nurse rather than gender.67 Drawing on research studies studying
the relationship between sex difference and occupation as criteria in
determining occupational suitability,68 the Wood Report argued that
the best nurses combined both masculine and feminine qualities. It
recommended that a scale for assessing masculinity and femininity, developed by American psychologist Lewis Terman in 1936, be
adapted for assessing student nurses.69
Domesticity, considered a qualification to nurse in the late
recurrence – of mania means a murder, sometimes a massacre. The homicidal maniac who Shocked the World as Jack the Ripper had been . . . in a lunatic
asylum.’23 One can well imagine that the individual who added this clipping
to the charity’s press-cuttings did so with a heavy heart, given that the article’s main intention was to generate panic among its readers that discharged
patients were dangerous, violent and by no means cured.
DESTIGMATISING MENTAL ILLNESS?
Brutish, brutal and brutalising: asylums, patients, nursing and
Cutting nails, chronic
Melissa Dickson, Emilie Taylor-Brown, and Sally Shuttleworth
, modern China, and Victorian England.
In Japan, as Sabine Frühstück has argued, neurasthenia was closely connected to concerns about masculinity, masturbation, and homosexuality.
Contrastingly, debates about neurasthenia in nineteenth-century Argentina were, as Kristin Ruggiero's work on modern diseases in the national Argentinian identity demonstrates, deeply informed by historical, politicised disputes about national honour and social responsibility
Lunacy investigation law and the asylum reconsidered
James E. Moran
rural New Jersey, it is easy to imagine that being declared non compos mentis constituted a major loss of masculine identity. In the case of John L., not only did this entail the loss of control over property that had clearly taken years to amass, but also included belittling contests with his guardian over limited access to his own funds in public spaces in his neighbourhood. In Chapter 5 the parameters of masculinity and non compos mentis decisions for English men were explored. The much more detailed accounts of the New Jersey lunacy trials allow, in some