also makes use of personal photographs and reproductions.
Hélène Cixous, with the help of Mireille Calle-Gruber, has
produced a similar volume (Rootprints 1997 ) to
which Derrida contributed. The inclusion of extracts, fragments and
pictorial material co-opts, a dimension of life writing, just as
G!as destabilises monological philosophical discourse through
existential phenomenological terms:
the black man wants to be ‘a man amidst other men’.
Fanon ventriloquizes Freud as he contends that he knows nothing
about the sexuality of the black woman – which Freud characterizes
108 Fanon, postcolonialism and the ethics of difference
in Orientalizing terms as a ‘dark continent’. As Hélène Cixous remarks,
Freud’s question is rhetorical:
To pose the question ‘What do women want?’ is to pose it already
as answer, as from a man who isn’t expecting any answer, because
the answer is ‘She wants nothing’ … ‘What does she want? …
all of these, says Freud, are “uncanny themes” par
excellence’ (Castle, 1995 : 4–5).
Described by Hélène Cixous as ‘a strange theoretical
novel’ ( 1976 : 525), ‘The Uncanny’
is a Gothic masterwork in its own right. In it Freud outlines the
uncanny as ‘undoubtedly related to what is frightening – to
what arouses dread and horror’ ( 1990 : 339).
It is more particularly, he
, however, than to the redirection or subversion of the normative patriarchal law to whose hegemony Hélène Cixous famously referred as ‘L’Empire du propre’: an empire of the selfsame ( propre ), but also an empire of the clean ( propre ), signifying patriarchy's imperial recourse to transparency and self-evidence.
Surrealism's promise lay in its capacity for both twisting and sullying such a law, for introducing within its functioning the resistances of deviation, errantry, and opacity.
precisely to question this binary, and by definition androcentric
(Cixous 1986 , 63),
system of thought – which might offer a first step towards the
suggested ‘habit change’.
The idea of the emotional in gothic anti-realism
– which I see as key to the gothic’s survival in an era
of postmodernism – is also essential to the gothic
threatens it. Hélène Cixous, in
her discussion of Freud’s notion of the uncanny, argues that the
uncanny ‘is a unit in the “family” but it is not
really a member of the family’. 2 Excentric to itself, the uncanny marks the
unfamiliar, even as that unfamiliar returns within the spaces of the
family as a marker of the difference that confirms and destabilizes the
family’s shared identity, its assertion of
Angela Carter’s re-writing women’s fatal scripts from Poe and
male mythic and economic power over women’s bodies,
run throughout her work. She exposes the control behind the cautionary tale and the destructive otherizing informing the treatment of
women and sexual or romantic relations in myth, fairy tale and the
work of Poe and Lovecraft. Julie Kristeva’s (1988) and Helen Cixous’
(1976) theories of the transfer of fear, as well as loathing and disgust
onto the abject body of the constructed other is enlightening here.
Kristeva talks of:
Our disturbing otherness, for that indeed is what bursts in to confront
the ‘demons’, or
Morgana is intent on overthrowing Arthur’s glorious age of men,
which makes her available to be read as a threat to both patriarchal and
Christian values. Her representation resonates within the feminist
appropriation of witchcraft as a discourse of gender dissidence, as is
evident in Cixous and Clement’s (re)appropriation of witchcraft as
an anarchic discourse of female empowerment with capacity to subvert
writing written with languelait, the ‘white ink’ of ‘mother’s milk’ that Hélène Cixous proposes as
an alternative to the ‘phallogocentric’ writing of patriarchy, carried
out, as she contends, with a pen/penis.96 As becomes evident at the
end of the novel, Jordan’s individuation process involves his understanding of the constructedness of binary oppositions like father/
mother; man/woman; culture/nature; head/heart and the eventual
revelation of his bisexuality.97
Unlike Henri, who devotes a lot of space to narrating the physical
stages of his quest, Jordan is mainly
impact do the national cultures of origin have on the formation of French modernism for such key Parisian figures as Pablo Picasso (Spain), Tristan Tzara (Romania), Sonia Delaunay (Ukraine) and Marc Chagall (Lithuania)? Recognizing ways in which French post-structuralist theory of the 1960s to 1980s represents early twentieth-century modernism flowing into the discourse of philosophy, what is ‘French’ about Jacques Derrida (Algeria), Hélène Cixous (Algeria) and Julia Kristeva (Bulgaria)?
Transnationalizing French Modernist Studies does not mean abandoning such key