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Jenny Wormald

English crown caused more difficulties. To the dismay and astonishment of his leading English subjects, the new king refused to be straitjacketed into the role of being only monarch of England and, indeed, insisted on drawing on his Scottish experience. It was even worse because James, as a consequence of dealing with his own highly problematic Gaelic population, part of which had long political, military, marital and cultural contacts with the Gaelic Irish, thought that he understood Ireland better than the English government. Yet he may well have been right in this

in The plantation of Ulster
John Milton on the failure of the Ulster plantation
Nicholas McDowell

Confederate Association, made up of Gaelic Irish and ‘Old English’ settlers, and Charles I’s lord lieutenant in Ireland, James Butler, Marquis of Ormond (1610–88). Ormond’s army was joined in the opening months of 1649 by Cavaliers fleeing England after defeat in the second civil war and the execution of Charles I on 30 January. A further ‘complication’ was the horror of the mainly Scottish Presbyterian settlers in Ulster at the regicide and their antagonism to an English republican regime dominated by Independents, generally more tolerant of sectarianism and opposed to a

in The plantation of Ulster
Abstract only
The scattered Irish
Patrick O’Leary

Montgomery, who succeeded Lawrence as Punjab lieut.-governor, in consciously taking the same severe approach with mutineers as their ancestors did with Catholic, Gaelic Irish. James continues by quoting Sir William Kaye’s statement that these men were ‘familiar with the stirring watch-words of Derry: “No Surrender” ’. 50 Lawrence’s biographer, Charles Aitcheson, wrote, ‘the blood of

in Servants of the empire
Earl of Rosse and Alison Countess of Rosse

captioned: ‘An Exclent [sic] Receipt to Spend 4000 pound’. It shows how the old gate tower, and flanking towers built on by the first Sir Laurence, had been gentrified into a large, Dutch-style building with gabled attic windows, a balcony, and a terraced garden running down towards the town, the river flowing alongside (Figure 1.2). With the death of Charles II and the ascent to the throne of his Catholic brother, James, trouble again came to Ireland. It became once again a time for the old order of the Gaelic Irish to try to re-assert their power. Sir Laurence had

in William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse
The Silence in the Garden
Derek Hand

come to a bay known as Elador’s Bay, called after one of the first Rollestons (15). Gaelic Ireland has been translated into English, and the Rolleston name firmly links the family to the location. In the opening pages the reader is confusedly bombarded with names: place names, proper names and nicknames of the people who live and work in the house. In the modern world words are prone to slide and fragment even as something solid and fixed is being sought. As a consequence, the reader is compelled from this moment on to connect people and names to subsequent events

in William Trevor
Jason Harris

, setting aside questions of Gaelic unity, a further problem was the mixed ethnic make-up of Irish Catholicism. Even if the Gaelic Irish could be relied upon to support a mission to Scotland, it is not clear why • the irish franciscan mission to the highlands and islands • 207 the Old English should share their interest. In Ulster, geographical proximity provided a strong argument for fostering Catholicism in western Scotland, which might then provide a refuge from persecution; but the wealthy towns in the south had no such incentive. Because of the limited resources

in The Scots in early Stuart Ireland
Amy C. Mulligan

particular. A central mechanism, exhibited in Gerald’s works as well, situates key places in Ireland, but ensures that the Gaelic Irish themselves have no agency, cannot maintain control and are unable to manage the landscape; rather, Ireland and Irish purgatorial spaces are offered to those who are aligned with and act on behalf of Christian Europe, especially England, in its many forms. Here these lessons are worked out in terms of the Church and reform rather than in the more explicit terms of

in A landscape of words
Two tales of 1861–2
W. J. McCormack

(1633), the editing of which was to constitute in 1896 Standish James O’Grady’s most striking contribution to the Irish literary revival. Stafford had been an obscure traveller and soldier who, inheriting certain papers from the archives of the Elizabethan commander Sir George Carew, had assembled a vivid account of the war in Munster and the final destruction of Gaelic Ireland

in Dissolute characters
Mary Pierse

1960s, the subsequent life in Denmark and then home revisited twenty years later. The contrasting attitudes of time and in place are obvious in pregnant Polly’s flight from home when faced with the uncontrolled rage of her parents whose stance Ní Dhuibhne links to their romantic ideas of a pure Gaelic Ireland. When she gets a job abroad three years later, Polly is relieved that ‘nobody cared whether or not you were a single mother in Denmark’. More than that ‘All the talk was of feminism and women’s rights and the country was packed with creches and kindergartens

in From prosperity to austerity
The Provisional IRA and Sunningdale
Henry Patterson

Sinn Féin as a form of democratic socialism distinct from Western capitalism and Soviet-style socialism. Like the Irish socialist martyr James Connolly, it looked back to the Brehon laws for Gaelic Ireland for an indigenous tradition of communal property which was not to be updated into worker co-operatives in manufacturing, agriculture and fishing (White, 2006: 165). Having established their economic and social differences with the allegedly ‘Marxist’ Officials, the Provisionals advocated a form of federal government for Ireland with four provincial parliaments

in Sunningdale, the Ulster Workers’ Council strike and the struggle for democracy in Northern Ireland