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Incipient fascism?
Thomas Linehan

introduction of limited self-government at the provincial level, provided by the 1919 Government of India Act, would have the effect of loosening the imperial grip in that country. 1 The forces of disintegration within the Empire were also thought to be at work in Ireland. Events there since 1916 had seen the eclipse of Irish constitutionalism and the resurgence of ‘physical force’ republicanism and an inclusive, self-consciously Gaelic, Irish nationalist movement embodied in Sinn Fein. 2 Sinn Fein’s electoral advances during the 1918 General Election would spread panic

in British Fascism 1918-39
Russia’s resonances in late Elizabethan England
Felicity Jane Stout

Leicester and Sidney circles all point to an Elizabethan understanding of the Gaelic Irish as profoundly backward, almost beyond civilising, or in need of the intervention of the English sword to bring about civility in Ireland. By their very nature, the Irish were not only socially inferior, but more fundamentally culturally and spiritually degenerate, at a more primitive stage of development than the English and this became the justification for using any means necessary to civilise Ireland. However, if this could not be achieved, the absolute barbarism of the people

in Exploring Russia in the Elizabethan commonwealth
David Heffernan

•  ‘reform’ treatises and tudor conquest, 1546–1565  • 83 English pale around Calais and Boulogne in France where ‘if they wer killid the king had lost neuer a true man, and long from hens’.41 Conversely, reconciliation with the Gaelic Irish of the region remained a possibility throughout the period with pardons being granted even while Walter Cowley was conducting a survey of the territories as a preliminary to plantation.42 Nevertheless, settlement remained the preferred solution to the midlands question and it was at the heart of a small, but significant, proposal from

in Debating Tudor policy in sixteenth-century Ireland
Martin MacGregor

, particularly if Gaelic Ireland is invoked as a point of comparison.2 In the case of the Gaelic historical tracts we find in Ireland, particularly those prose texts which date from the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries, and are concerned to glorify a particular kindred, Scotland has none at all.3 In these circumstances the Scottish historian can find some 196 The genealogical histories of Gaelic Scotland consolation, not merely in the fact that many of these Irish sources contain Scottish material,4 but also in the remarkable outpouring of historical tracts in Gaelic

in The spoken word
Raymond Gillespie

not attractive and in the following year he replaced this with medical and dietary advice for each month. This too seems not to have increased sales and in 1685 he included a history of Ireland from the coming of Christianity to 1172. This seems to be a history of Bourke’s own devising, drawing on a range of scholarly and popular works by James Ware and Peter Walsh to construct, in a traditional manner, a succession list of kings with comments on their reigns. In this case it may be that Bourke, sensing a change in attitudes to the world of Gaelic Ireland, as

in Reading Ireland
Jane Ohlmeyer

that 19 women came from aristocratic backgrounds. Five fathers were Scottish lords (including Abercorn, Atholl, Huntly and Stirling) and three were English peers (Fitzharding, Monmouth and Rutland). The remaining 11 fathers were Irish lords. With the exception of the first earl of Antrim who married a daughter of the Catholic and Gaelic Irish, earl of Tyrone, these marriages were largely to New English Protestants (the Annesleys, Brabazons, Blayneys, Cootes, Jones, Masserenes and Moores). Two matched with the • ‘scottish peers’ in seventeenth-century ireland • 75

in The Scots in early Stuart Ireland
Lindsay J. Proudfoot and Dianne P. Hall

church merely emphasised the connection between this denomination and Gaelic Irish ethnicity within the polyglot and multicultural spaces of this particular part of colonial Victoria. The mutually reinforcing connections between language, cultural memory and religious practice were also felt by the numerically smaller but still cohesive Scots Catholic migrant stream. The needs of some of the smaller Scots

in Imperial spaces
Ian Campbell

Aristotelianism could also be obscured by a surface radicalism, as with the Paracelsian Dermot O’Meara, or more importantly tempered by theological constraints, as with Peter Pippard, Thomas Medus, or John Punch. Aristotelianism could be used to attack Gaelic Ireland, or to attack English Ireland; it could be learned in Oxford, Salamanca, Paris, or Pisa. But all of these authors and interest groups believed that reason was the essence of each human being and believed also that human reason could perceive final causes, the purposes of things. These two positions were what made

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race
Colin Veach

’s successors. Hereafter the theoretical designation of Munster, Connacht and Ulster as ‘Gaelic Ireland’, ignored though it might have been by those on both sides, no longer stood in the way of rapid conquest and settlement. What is more, the marriage alliance between Ruaidrí and Hugh does not seem to have translated into congenial relations between Hugh and the new king of Connacht (Hugh’s brother-­in-­law). Rumours at the English court suggested that Hugh had designs on the succession to Connacht, or even the high kingship of Ireland. In 1184 he let his dissatisfaction with

in Lordship in four realms
Raymond Gillespie

press confident that to thine use I will shortly publish other learned works which hitherto, through the iniquity of former times lay lurking in darkness.15 7 MUP/Gillespie_01_Ch1 7 15/3/05, 8:30 am The conditions of print From yet a third perspective, that of Gaelic Ireland, print also appeared attractive. By the early seventeenth century the preserving power of print was viewed by some as a way of capturing the history and culture of a traditional world that appeared under threat. In 1642 Rory O’More, one of those who had planned the rising of the previous year

in Reading Ireland