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Simha Goldin

make it possible to conduct a historical analysis of their community, and the relations between them and the Christians. The Carolingian kings considered the Jews a positive populating element that must be looked after and protected. In the first half of the ninth century, Emperor Louis the Pious (814–840) granted privileges to individual Jewish merchants and their families. 12 He undertook to guarantee

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
Matthew Kempshall

was made expertly, if obliquely, by Einhard. In commemorating the deeds of Charlemagne during the reign of his son, Einhard was inviting his audience to draw a comparison with Louis the Pious – there is thus a barb to his observation that Charlemagne’s actions were ‘scarcely capable of imitation’ (vix imitabiles actus).173 Paschasius Radbertus, too, was well aware of the potential consequences of such comparison but, in his case, he makes the point explicit: ‘because … people think they are disparaged when they hear others praised, there now exists no place to speak

in Rhetoric and the writing of history, 400 –1500
Simon Corcoran

Sirmondians 1–18 was at Lyons in the ninth century, where it was corrected by Florus himself. As part of the dispute between Louis the Pious and Bishop Agobard over the forced conversion of the slaves and children of the Jews of Lyons in the 820s, Florus compiled a set of authorities, 53 whose only Roman legal content comprised extracts from five of these Sirmondians (nos. 1, 3, 6, 11, 15) plus a sixth text (known as Sirmondian 20), possibly once present in this manuscript, but certainly known from another probable Lyons manuscript. 54 These same authorities, with the

in Hincmar of Rheims
Janet L. Nelson

. 1 ‘There’, i.e. Aachen, and ‘he’, i.e. Louis the Pious, are references back to the entry for 829 in the RFA. For the AB as the continuation of the RFA , see above, Introduction: 5. 2 On relations between Brittany and the Carolingian Empire, see Davies 1990; Smith 1992

in The Annals of St-Bertin
Kriston R. Rennie

ability of the popes to claim a real leadership over all of Christendom’. 57 This monastery’s success in achieving genuine and forged privileges meant that they ‘ultimately played a role in creating in earnest the kind of centralized papal authority that they were trying to assert’. 58 Even though they had previously received secular privileges from Chilperic, Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, Lothar, and Charles the Bald, 59 the monks of Montier-en-Der ‘became convinced that popes, not the secular advocates to whom they had earlier turned, and

in Freedom and protection
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From prehistoric monument to petrified ‘book’
Michelle P. Brown

Harald Bluetooth’s aspirations as sponsor of a literate Christian culture had been fully realised in the reign of this successor. Scandinavia was already acquainted with writing, and with Christianity. In 831 the missionary Ansgar was despatched from Birka in Sweden bearing a message written in runes by King Björn’s own hand, informing the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious of his mission’s success. 17 The substantial corpus of rune-sticks from Bergen and Hedeby, extending through to the fourteenth century, bears witness to high levels of pragmatic lay literacy in

in Aspects of knowledge
Yitzhak Hen

politique de l’Antiquité aux Lumières (Rouen, 2007), 69–86; R. Stone, Morality and Masculinity in the Carolingian Empire (Cambridge, 2012), pp. 36–46. One cannot rule out the possibility that it was prepared with a specific ruler in mind. However, there is no evidence that associates it with either Louis the Pious, or one of his sons. 160 Yitzhak Hen lay on his shoulders as God’s chosen representative.51 This is exactly how Alcuin understood it even before the imperial coronation, when he wrote to Charlemagne: ‘What glory will be yours, most blest king, when all these

in Religious Franks
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Mayke de Jong and Justin Lake

Egyptian desert. The name could be fittingly applied to Wala, who served as tutor and adviser to Louis the Pious’s son Lothar from 822 to 825. Radbert and contemporaries knew about Arsenius from the sixth-century Latin translations of the Greek writings about the desert fathers (the Apophthegmata patrum ); De Jong, Epitaph , pp. 31–2. 8 Zeuxis of Heraclea (c. 435/425–390 BC) was a famous painter of Classical Antiquity. Cicero ( De inventione 2.1.1) recounts a story in which the citizens of Croton in southern Italy hired him to decorate the temple of Juno. Having

in Confronting crisis in the Carolingian empire
Kriston R. Rennie

-Denis’. 118 This pattern of monastic exemption becomes more apparent under Louis the Pious (814–40), whose dedication to Benedictine reform effectively conferred royal protection and grants of immunity to monasteries throughout the Frankish Empire. 119 When Charles the Bald granted privileges to Flavigny in 849, moreover, he stated very clearly that the monastery’s dominium no longer belonged to the diocesan bishop. Rather, it was emphatically placed under the king’s protection ( tuitio ), immunity ( immunitas ), and defence ( defensio ). 120

in Freedom and protection
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Kriston R. Rennie

), exemptions provided an immediate and potentially powerful solution for the monks. Seeking stronger legal backing for his own monastery, Abbo sought to reconfirm Fleury’s exemption privileges, first issued at Rome under popes John VIII in 878 and Leo VII in 938. 25 The abbot set about acquiring these from Rome methodically, ‘step by step’. 26 Whereas the former document confirmed privileges granted to the monastery under emperors Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, the latter grant provided freedom from local rule, freedom of abbatial election, and an inalienable right over

in Freedom and protection