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Kriston R. Rennie

ability of the popes to claim a real leadership over all of Christendom’. 57 This monastery’s success in achieving genuine and forged privileges meant that they ‘ultimately played a role in creating in earnest the kind of centralized papal authority that they were trying to assert’. 58 Even though they had previously received secular privileges from Chilperic, Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, Lothar, and Charles the Bald, 59 the monks of Montier-en-Der ‘became convinced that popes, not the secular advocates to whom they had earlier turned, and

in Freedom and protection
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From prehistoric monument to petrified ‘book’
Michelle P. Brown

Harald Bluetooth’s aspirations as sponsor of a literate Christian culture had been fully realised in the reign of this successor. Scandinavia was already acquainted with writing, and with Christianity. In 831 the missionary Ansgar was despatched from Birka in Sweden bearing a message written in runes by King Björn’s own hand, informing the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious of his mission’s success. 17 The substantial corpus of rune-sticks from Bergen and Hedeby, extending through to the fourteenth century, bears witness to high levels of pragmatic lay literacy in

in Aspects of knowledge
Yitzhak Hen

politique de l’Antiquité aux Lumières (Rouen, 2007), 69–86; R. Stone, Morality and Masculinity in the Carolingian Empire (Cambridge, 2012), pp. 36–46. One cannot rule out the possibility that it was prepared with a specific ruler in mind. However, there is no evidence that associates it with either Louis the Pious, or one of his sons. 160 Yitzhak Hen lay on his shoulders as God’s chosen representative.51 This is exactly how Alcuin understood it even before the imperial coronation, when he wrote to Charlemagne: ‘What glory will be yours, most blest king, when all these

in Religious Franks
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Mayke de Jong and Justin Lake

Egyptian desert. The name could be fittingly applied to Wala, who served as tutor and adviser to Louis the Pious’s son Lothar from 822 to 825. Radbert and contemporaries knew about Arsenius from the sixth-century Latin translations of the Greek writings about the desert fathers (the Apophthegmata patrum ); De Jong, Epitaph , pp. 31–2. 8 Zeuxis of Heraclea (c. 435/425–390 BC) was a famous painter of Classical Antiquity. Cicero ( De inventione 2.1.1) recounts a story in which the citizens of Croton in southern Italy hired him to decorate the temple of Juno. Having

in Confronting crisis in the Carolingian empire
Kriston R. Rennie

-Denis’. 118 This pattern of monastic exemption becomes more apparent under Louis the Pious (814–40), whose dedication to Benedictine reform effectively conferred royal protection and grants of immunity to monasteries throughout the Frankish Empire. 119 When Charles the Bald granted privileges to Flavigny in 849, moreover, he stated very clearly that the monastery’s dominium no longer belonged to the diocesan bishop. Rather, it was emphatically placed under the king’s protection ( tuitio ), immunity ( immunitas ), and defence ( defensio ). 120

in Freedom and protection
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Kriston R. Rennie

), exemptions provided an immediate and potentially powerful solution for the monks. Seeking stronger legal backing for his own monastery, Abbo sought to reconfirm Fleury’s exemption privileges, first issued at Rome under popes John VIII in 878 and Leo VII in 938. 25 The abbot set about acquiring these from Rome methodically, ‘step by step’. 26 Whereas the former document confirmed privileges granted to the monastery under emperors Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, the latter grant provided freedom from local rule, freedom of abbatial election, and an inalienable right over

in Freedom and protection
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

( inferiorem servicium ) in the time of Louis the Pious. They did so and the claimants lost their case. Several ninth-century placita reveal that some Italian monasteries also tried to transform their landholdings into ‘coercive power over men [and women]’, following quite similar strategies. 75 In northern Iberia, decline in status through the extension of lordship seems much less frequent before the year 1000 than later and than in the previously discussed regions. 76 With the exception of some royal estates and those of very powerful monasteries such as Celanova

in Neighbours and strangers
Priests as neighbours in early medieval local societies
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

nasty. For instance, an unnamed priest mentioned in a letter of 852/3 from Pope Leo IV to the bishops of Senlis and Beauvais, was forcefully removed from his church by another priest, upon which his relatives took revenge by blinding the perpetrator. 59 Another scandal, recorded in a letter that the victim wrote to Emperor Louis the Pious, features the priest Atto, who read Mass for the cleric Frothwin in exchange for part of the tithes; but when Atto asked for his money, Frothwin and his relatives turned up in the middle of the night to beat him up. 60 Such violent

in Neighbours and strangers
King Athelstan’s sisters and Frankish queenship
Simon MacLean

’s daughter Judith who married Æthelwulf king of Wessex in 856. 13 However, this was a highly unusual case. In the case of royal sons in the ninth century there were to be no exceptions. This was spelled out explicitly in the Ordinatio Imperii of 817 which stated that, unlike their aristocratic followers, none of Louis the Pious’s heirs ‘should presume to take a wife of foreign nationality

in Frankland
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Simon MacLean

made with a clear concept of the work’s overall shape in mind. 163 In his preamble to the ‘original’ section of the Chronicle which begins in 818, Regino divides the remainder of Book II into three sections: the times of Louis the Pious (814–840); the times of Emperor Lothar and his brothers (840– c .875); and ‘our own times’, apparently referring to the period

in History and politics in late Carolingian and Ottonian Europe