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Nikolai Vukov

ceded territories with a substantial Bulgarian population to neighbouring states and imposed harsh reparations. The influx of refugees from territories beyond Bulgaria’s border posed a heavy burden. As a leading reporter observed: The arrival of Bulgarian refugees, expelled from neighbouring countries, as a result of the First World War, continues incessantly in a long chain that adds to the difficult situation created by several hundred thousand miserable folk who escaped from Romania, Serbia, and chiefly from Thrace and Macedonia, and who found shelter in what for

in Europe on the move
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Custom and practice
Edward M. Spiers

on the line of march, Wolseley’s forces entered a largely deserted enemy capital, Kumase (Kumasi), after victory at the battle of Amoafo (31 January 1874). Hopeful that the Asantehene , the Asante king, would return, capitulate, and pay the reparations requested of him, Wolseley banned looting, placed guards at the royal palace, and approved the flogging of any Fantes caught in the act. ‘Our black fellows’, wrote Private Ronald Ferguson (Black Watch), ‘were always stealing, and we had to lash them for their lazy ways.’ 36 Wolseley, though, faced the onset of the

in Dividing the spoils
Advantages and disadvantages
Michael Cunningham

York: Norton, 1993). 123 States of apology Augoustinos and Le Couteur, ‘On Whether to Apologize to Indigenous Australians’, p. 252. Dawson and Popoff claim that Horowitz, an American conservative, equates support for reparations with disloyalty to the nation (‘Reparations: justice and greed in black and white’, p. 57). 28 See C. W. Watson, Multiculturalism (Buckingham: Open University Press, 2000), pp. 36–43 for a critique of Schlesinger. 29 Miller, On Nationality, p. 49. 30 As Lind points out ‘people always have a hard time acknowledging hard truths about their

in States of apology
Bill Dunn

process running up huge debts which then informed the Versailles Conference and the ‘Carthaginian Peace’ imposed on Germany. President Wilson came with his fourteen-point plan for a post-war world of international cooperation but was unwilling to forgive allied debts, and the British and French in turn demanded reparations from Germany. By this time, Keynes had become the principal Treasury representative. He saw the negotiations first hand and was contemptuous both of the leading participants and of the final Treaty. Keynes’s Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919

in Keynes and Marx
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El espinazo del Diablo/The Devil’s Backbone
David Archibald

representation.’ Here it is worth recounting del Toro’s own assertion that he is interested in a spiritual retelling of the event, not a realistic documenting of the event. Labanyi suggests that ‘In a country that has emerged from forty years of cultural repression, the task of making reparation to the ghosts of the past – that is, to those relegated to the status of the living dead, denied voice and memory – is considerable.’ (2008: 80) Arguably, these reparations will not only be paid through history books or political legislation: cinema can also play an important part in

in The war that won't die
From Truman to Eisenhower (1948– 53)
Joseph Heller

payment, arms acquisition, immigrant absorption, and preparations for emergencies were obtainable only in the United States. In addition, Israel could not hope to receive reparations from Germany without US involvement and Israel did indeed get special treatment, receiving $100 million. However, Washington was concerned about how the Arabs would react. US officials were also wary about how the Israeli

in The United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab– Israeli conflict, 1948– 67
Joseph Heller

harmful to US interests. 2 The US embassy in Amman said peace negotiations would only be possible if Israel made concessions. It would have to internationalize Jerusalem, recognize the Arab refugees’ right of return, make reparations and adjust borders to permit villagers to return to their lands, otherwise the spread of Communism would be encouraged. 3 The new Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles

in The United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab– Israeli conflict, 1948– 67
Joseph Heller

the advantages and disavantages of its relationship with Israel, and was therefore open to compromise. Ben-Gurion sought to establish diplomatic relations with West Germany. To opponents he said that West Germany did not need to be rehabilitated by Israel. It was already a member of NATO and East Germany was a member of the Warsaw Pact and had not paid reparations to the Jewish people as West Germany

in The United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab– Israeli conflict, 1948– 67
Mateja Celestina

have lived in our own flesh what violence is, who have experienced persecution, and who know what it is to see a massacre of a family member … there are people who have no idea what it means to live the nightmare, thinking that at night they 79 The making of a desplazado 79 are going to massacre me too. And these people are protected by the government, they receive reparations. I  have just received a reply from an office in Acción Social that I can’t receive reparations because the legislative framework doesn’t cover me; that it wasn’t the paramilitaries who

in Living displacement
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Definitional issues
Michael Cunningham

following definition of the apology. It ‘refers to an encounter between two parties in which one party, the offender, acknowledges responsibility for an offense or grievance and expresses regret or remorse to a second party, the aggrieved’.7 He later argues that the process of apology can be divided into four parts ‘1) the acknowledgment of the offense; 2) the explanation; 3) various attitudes and behaviors including remorse, shame, humility and sincerity; and 4) reparations.’8 Lazare then emphasises the importance of context and situation in that not all of these four

in States of apology