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Transposing Une semaine de bonté to film
Arnaud Maillet

documentary about art, but also an exhibition film – that is, a film that was both an experimental work in its own right and a way of showing Max Ernst’s collages. He was not simply looking to tell a story when animating the collages. He also wanted to renew the way they were exhibited, as he personally told me. 58 Making a film with the collages was a way of making them visible again, at a time when Ernst did not seem as avant-garde as he once had, competing against Art Informel in the 1950s, then the invention of the happening by Allan Kaprow (1959), and, in 1960, the

in Surrealism and film after 1945
Tom Gunning

themselves in an ever-changing urban scene, just as Cornell sought to do in his aimless walks that inspired these films. A Legend for Fountains opens as his female protagonist, played by Suzanne Miller, descends a dark stairway and exits through an arched corridor. Her slow pace resembles the somnambulist protagonists of the trance films made by American avant-garde film-makers of this era such as Maya Deren, Curtis Harrington, and Brakhage (especially in Brakhage’s Reflections on Black (1955)). 77 Of all his films, Legend most recalls Cornell’s boxes, with its

in Surrealism and film after 1945
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A Channel 4 experiment 1982–85
John Ellis

the avant-garde interviewed on the opening of a major retrospective in London. Already some of the intended features of the series made themselves clear. There is an eclectic range of films from the commercial to the most resolutely non-commercial. Where commercial cinema is addressed, it is done so critically and coolly. Reviews of specific films were presented by unusual and often critical voices. Dustin Hoffman, in London to launch his drag performance in Tootsie, took particular exception to the Visions review of the film by two gay activists on 27 April 1983

in Experimental British television
A genealogy of the semantic paradigm of radio dramaturgy
Farokh Soltani

between radio and cinema ( 1949 : 54–68), and in particular draws from ideas and techniques from Russian avant-garde cinema, such as those of Pudovkin and Eisenstein ( 1949 : 67, 68); rather than using theatre as a model for radio drama, he posits that radio is ‘free of many of the stage's limitations’ ( 1949 : 54). He understands the function of music in radio not as an occasional signpost but as integral to the experience of the drama, and devotes an entire chapter to an analytical response of critiques of music in radio drama ( 1949 : 110–27), in which he proposes

in Radio / body
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Author: Colin Gardner

More English than the Brits' proclaims one of the chapter headings in Michel Ciment's seminal series of interviews with Joseph Losey. Losey's life embraces a major crisis in political commitment and public tolerance (the blacklist); his career, his oeuvre, spans the most fundamental cultural confrontation of the century, between Marxism and Modernism, between progressive "realism" and the avant-garde subversion of optimism. Losey began his directorial career in the leftist political theatre of the 1930s. For Losey, as for many leftists of the period, Communism meant allegiance to the Soviet ideological model, and by extension, to Stalin's policies. The 1950s proved to be a difficult decade for Joseph Losey, a period marked by prolonged exile, the ever-lengthening reach of the blacklist and the constant fear of betrayal. The Sleeping Tiger, The Intimate Stranger and A Man on the Beach were made during his period of exile in the 1950s. There was an experimental, writer-oriented focus in Joseph Losey's later work, opening the way for collaborations on a more equal footing. Losey collaborated three films with Harold Pinter: The Servant, Accident and The Go-Between. His involvement in Secret Ceremony, Boom! and Figures in a Landscape was a case of blatant economic necessity. Most of his work directly explores and addresses the ideological interpellation of women by analysing the cultural assumptions that both construct and perpetuate it. Losey officially became a tax exile after relocating himself from Chelsea to Paris because of tax problems.

Horror cinema, historical trauma and national identity
Author: Linnie Blake

This book explores the ways in which the unashamedly disturbing conventions of international horror cinema allow audiences to engage with the traumatic legacy of the recent past in a manner that has serious implications for the ways in which we conceive of ourselves both as gendered individuals and as members of a particular nation-state. Exploring a wide range of stylistically distinctive and generically diverse film texts, its analysis ranges from the body horror of the American 1970s to the avant-garde proclivities of German Reunification horror, from the vengeful supernaturalism of recent Japanese chillers and their American remakes to the post-Thatcherite masculinity horror of the UK and the resurgence of hillbilly horror in the period following 9/11 USA. In each case, it is argued that horror cinema forces us to look again at the wounds inflicted on individuals, families, communities and nations by traumatic events such as genocide and war, terrorist outrage and seismic political change, wounds that are all too often concealed beneath ideologically expedient discourses of national cohesion. Thus proffering a radical critique of the nation-state and the ideologies of identity it promulgates, horror cinema is seen to offer us a disturbing, yet perversely life affirming, means of working through the traumatic legacy of recent times.

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Author: Guy Austin

Claude Chabrol's films break down the dubious critical barrier between art cinema and popular cinema. Rejecting the avant-garde and the experimental, Chabrol chooses to work within the confines of established genres. He has in fact filmed farce, melodrama, fantasy, war films, spy films and glossy literary adaptations. Chabrol has excellent new-wave credentials and is in some ways a representative figure for this innovative film movement in French cinema. For the small budget of 32 million old francs, he was able to shoot Le Beau Serge over nine weeks in the winter of 1957/8 and film it in what was essentially his home village. Chabrol has known periods of great success (the launching of the new wave in 1958, the superb Hélène cycle of the late 1960s, including his most famous film Le Boucher for his return to form in the 1990s). He also has had periods of inactivity and failure. His depiction of the middle classes usually concentrates on the family. Le Cri du hibou begins as Masques ends, with a framed image from which the camera slowly tracks back to reveal the presence of a spectator. Given that in Chabrol's cinema women are often lacking in financial or social power, there are limits to the ways in which they can either define themselves or escape their situation. This is spelled out most clearly in Les Bonnes Femmes, where the potential escape routes are sex, marriage into the bourgeoisie, a career, romance or death.

Jo George

as being ‘explicitly against the classical narrative mode’ to its absolute limits. For Michael O’Pray, these films are, in fact, ‘difficult to appreciate within the conventional terms of art cinema criticism’, and instead ‘bring together art cinema and the avant-garde ’ in ‘an eclectic, hybrid manner’. 4 This chapter will examine The Last of England and The Garden and will bear out O’Pray’s assertion by demonstrating their kinship with key works of avant-garde cinema such as Jean Cocteau’s Blood of a Poet (1930), Maya Deren’s Meshes of the Afternoon (1943

in British art cinema
“Edgy” TV drama Queer as Folk, Sex and the City, Carnivàle
Robin Nelson

UK), subscription channels are able to bypass the regulator and thus be even more daring, particularly in respect of “strong language” and “scenes of an adult nature”. But the testing of boundaries by the subscription channel output gradually pushes the envelope for all television in terms of what is deemed culturally acceptable, and the range of possible content and forms is consequently broadened. In respect of form, the tendency of the leading subscription channel, HBO, to align its products with modernist cinema might evoke the idea of the avant-garde, chap 4

in State of play
The Langham Group and the search for a new television drama
John Hill

the ‘false’ world of mass culture (associated with ‘the Princess’ and the tawdry pop songs she performs).26 A similar collision of cultures (and emotional forces) may also be found in Mario when a group of beatniks attempt to drown out a dance band playing ‘a Victor Sylvester type fox-trot’ in a hotel ballroom by ‘whooping and jiving’ to the sound of ‘a rock ’n’ roll number’.27 Success and failure What this would appear to suggest is that the Langham Group was a more complex phenomenon than is usually recalled. Even its reputation as an avant-garde ‘art set

in Experimental British television