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Taking the role of non-governmental organisations in customary international lawmaking seriously
Valentina Azarova

-governmental organisations incur obligations under international humanitarian law to ensure that their humanitarian operations are undertaken in a neutral and impartial manner, and in line with the principle of non-discrimination. 53 The practical challenge in such cases is often to reconcile the need for access with the non-governmental organisation’s responsibility to maintain its neutrality and ensure that it ‘does no harm’, including by abstaining from giving effect to and treating as lawful the unlawful practices of an authority that controls the group’s access to a certain area or

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law
Timothy Edmunds

mobile armed forces, capable of participat -ing in international peace and humanitarian operations, anti-terrorist actions and responding to natural disasters. 31 These priorities were mirrored and taken forward by a new reformist defence minister, Boris Tadić, who in March 2003 outlined a ten point plan for defence reform. This also made reference to the development of smaller

in Security sector reform in transforming societies
Jannika Brostrom

1999. The International Force for East Timor was a multi-nation humanitarian operation led by Australia and authorised under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. It was established in response to the ‘scorched earth campaign’ perpetrated by Indonesian-backed militia forces following East Timor’s vote for independence. This campaign destroyed over 80 per cent of East Timorese infrastructure, caused the death

in Violence and the state
Kelly-Kate Pease

, and medical services to millions of starving people. Eventually, a UN peacekeeping force took over stability operations in 1993; however, the partnership between the United States and UN would be tested as a UN operation under independent US military command (to capture a warlord) led to the deaths of eighteen US servicemen. As dramatized in the US film Black Hawk Down , the bodies of these servicemen were mutilated and dragged through the streets of Mogadishu. These events were broadcast around the world on CNN and would color future humanitarian operations in

in Human rights and humanitarian diplomacy
Vicki Squire, Nina Perkowski, Dallal Stevens, and Nick Vaughan-Williams

very different experiences according to the routes taken by people on the move. Many of those travelling on the central Mediterranean route were unaware of the military-humanitarian operations referred to by Garelli and Tazzioli ( 2018a, 2018b ). For this reason, none of the people we spoke with discussed being deterred from leaving the shores of Libya in fear of encountering and being contained by military-led operations at sea. Their testimonies cast doubt on the veracity of claims that widespread awareness of search and

in Reclaiming migration
Order and security in post-Cold War Europe
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

. Defence against invasion – defence of our vital interests: these are NATO’s essential tasks. But Europeans can and must respond to other demands in Europe and beyond: peace keeping, crisis management, humanitarian operations, sanctions enforcement.’65 The foregoing discussion shows that European national responses to the end of the Cold War were conditioned by the highly institutionalised European environment. Not only that, but European governments promoted ‘institutionalisation’, albeit in different forms (adaptation, reform, consolidation, etc.). This, however, does

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Nigel D. White

’ expenses (for example the costs of peacekeeping or humanitarian operations) is not based on the principle of sovereign equality either, it being accepted that it would be unfair for institutional law to recognise that the financing of IGOs should be shared equally. In most IGOs, financial contributions from member states are based on their capacity to pay, so that a poor state will pay far less than a rich one. A tension then arises for the richer states may well argue that they should be entitled to more privileges and more voting power. It can be seen from this

in The law of international organisations (third edition)
Dean J. White

. 133 Confidential interview with Royal Army Medical Corps officer, 4 May 2012. 134 Treasury, letter from FCO to Treasury, ‘Rwanda: British Contingent’, 2 August 1994. 135 A. Hawley, ‘Rwanda 1994: A Study of Medical Support in Military Humanitarian Operations’, Journal of Royal Army Medical Corps 143 (1997), p. 79. 136 Interview with Lieutenant Colonel Mike Wharmby. White.indd 138 10/6/2014 5:35:41 PM 137 138 139 140 141 White.indd 139 The bystander who did too little, too late? 139 Hawley, ‘Rwanda 1994’, p. 78. MOD, Army News Release

in The ignorant bystander?
Abstract only
Jean-Hervé Bradol and Marc Le Pape

the French forces’ legitimacy and credibility to implement humanitarian operations. The evaluation mission team summarised its position in its report to Paris head office: ‘Despite the political problems arising from the presence of the French army and the tight control the militias and civil authorities are exerting over the population, we must provide assistance while taking great care to ensure our

in Humanitarian aid, genocide and mass killings
Mark Webber

There are some marginal exceptions on this score. An OSCE mission was established in Chechnya in 1995, although Russia declined to renew its mandate in early 2003. Russia has also permitted a number of UN humanitarian operations and Council of Europe delegations to visit Chechnya. 105 D. Trenin, ‘Russia and

in Inclusion, exclusion and the governance of European Security