At a time when monolingualist claims for the importance of ‘speaking English’ to the national order continue louder than ever, even as language diversity is increasingly part of contemporary British life, literature becomes a space to consider the terms of linguistic belonging. Bad English examines writers including Tom Leonard, James Kelman, Suhayl Saadi, Raman Mundair, Daljit Nagra, Xiaolu Guo, Leila Aboulela, Brian Chikwava, and Caroline Bergvall, who engage multilingually, experimentally, playfully, and ambivalently with English’s power. Considering their invented vernaculars and mixed idioms, their dramatised scenes of languaging – languages learned or lost, acts of translation, scenes of speaking, the exposure and racialised visibility of accent – it argues for a growing field of contemporary literature in Britain pre-eminently concerned with language’s power dynamics, its aesthetic potentialities, and its prosthetic strangeness. Drawing on insights from applied linguistics and translation studies as well as literary scholarship, Bad English explores contemporary arguments about language in Britain – in debates about citizenship or education, in the media or on Twitter, in Home Office policy and asylum legislation – as well as the ways they are taken up in literature. It uncovers both an antagonistic and a productive interplay between language politics and literary form, tracing writers’ articulation of linguistic alienation and ambivalence, as well as the productivity and making-new of radical language practices. Doing so, it refutes the view that language difference and language politics are somehow irrelevant to contemporary Britain and instead argues for their constitutive centrality to the work of novelists and poets whose inside/outside relationship to English in its institutionalised forms is the generative force of their writing.
Anthropology after Gluckman places the intimate circle around Max Gluckman, his Manchester School, in the vanguard of modern social anthropology. The book discloses the School’s intense, argument-rich collaborations, developing beyond an original focus in south and central Africa. Where outsiders have seen dominating leadership by Gluckman, a common stock of problems, and much about conflict, Richard Werbner highlights how insiders were drawn to explore many new frontiers in fieldwork and in-depth, reflexive ethnography, because they themselves, in class and gender, ethnicity and national origins, were remarkably inclusive. Characteristically different anthropologists, their careers met the challenges of being a public intellectual, an international celebrity, an institutional good citizen, a social and political activist, an advocate of legal justice. Their living legacies are shown, for the first time, through interlinked social biography and intellectual history to reach broadly across politics, law, ritual, semiotics, development studies, comparative urbanism, social network analysis and mathematical sociology. Innovation – in research methods and techniques, in documenting people’s changing praxis and social relations, in comparative analysis and a destabilizing strategy of re-analysis within ethnography – became the School’s hallmark. Much of this exploration confronted troubling times in Africa, colonial and postcolonial, which put the anthropologists and their anthropological knowledge at risk. The resurgence of debate about decolonization makes the accounts of fierce, End of Empire argument and recent postcolonial anthropology all the more topical. The lessons, even in activism, for social scientists, teachers as well as graduate and undergraduate students are compelling for our own troubled times.
What do we really know of the origins and first spread of major monotheistic religions, once we strip away the myths and later traditions that developed? Creating God uses modern critical historical scholarship alongside archaeology to describe the times and places which saw the emergence of Mormonism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. What was the social, economic and political world in which they began, and the framework of other contemporary religious movements in which they could flourish? What was their historical background and what was their geographical setting? Written from a secular viewpoint, the author reveals where a scholarly approach to the history of religions may diverge from the assumptions of faith, and shows the value of comparing different movements and different histories in one account. Throughout history, many individuals have believed that they were in direct contact with a divine source, receiving direction to spread a religious message. A few persuaded others and developed a following, and a small minority of such movements grew into full religions. In time, these movements developed, augmented, selected and invented their own narratives of foundation: stories about the founders’ lives and the early stages in which their religious group emerged. Modern critical scholarship helps us understand something of how a successful religion could emerge, thrive and begin the journey to become a world faith. This book presents a narrative to interest, challenge and intrigue readers interested in the beginnings of some of the most powerful ideas that have influenced human history.
Ralph Knevet's Supplement of the Faery Queene (1635) is a narrative and allegorical work, which weaves together a complex collection of tales and episodes, featuring knights, ladies, sorcerers, monsters, vertiginous fortresses and deadly battles – a chivalric romp in Spenser's cod medieval style. The poem shadows recent English history, and the major military and political events of the Thirty Years War. But the Supplement is also an ambitiously intertextual poem, weaving together materials from mythic, literary, historical, scientific, theological, and many other kinds of written sources. Its encyclopaedic ambitions combine with Knevet's historical focus to produce an allegorical epic poem of considerable interest and power. This new edition of Knevet's Supplement, the first scholarly text of the poem ever published, situates it in its literary, historical, biographical, and intellectual contexts. An extensive introduction and copious critical commentary, positioned at the back of the book, will enable students and scholars alike to access Knevet's complicated and enigmatic meanings, structures, and allusions.
Samuel Clarke’s Christology informed his sacramental theology. In
an interleaved 1724 edition of the Book of Common Prayer, Clarke had
emended the liturgy, including sections within the prayer book concerning
the sacraments, in a way that exalted God the Father over God the Son. In the
section on Communion, for instance, Clarke struck out the Nicene Creed and
replaced a passage which praised ‘the only begotten son Jesus Christ; O Lord
God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, that takest away the sins of the world’
with one which emphasized the Father
rather enabled by it. 11 To John of Fécamp, the authority of the Fathers, the discipline of monastic life, the arrangement of the liturgy, the pastoral duties expected of the abbot, and the very structure of coenobitic monasticism allowed for the rigorous cultivation of affective and efficacious prayer.
This study of John of Fécamp asks scholars to understand ‘affective piety’ in a way that acknowledges its many varieties, each adapted for the complex spectrum of medieval contexts in which it was practised. We do a disservice to the
crusades (1209–29); the defence of papal temporal interests in
Germany and Italy in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the
so-called political crusades. Together, these wars produced their
own literature, liturgy and religious communities, notably the
military orders, such as the Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic
Knights. Clearly associated, if lacking official support, were
popular uprisings ostensibly aimed at the recovery of Jerusalem,
such as the Children’s Crusade (1212) and the Shepherds’
Crusades (1251 and 1320). In places, even those attacked by
database Early English
other projects show he differed markedly with aspects of that establishment. Elizabeth did not have to be perfect to be God’s instrument, or
even to be “most excellent and glorious,” because God was going to be
successful in any case. Contradiction, ambiguity, and irony are set aside
in certain literary and religious contexts.
We have seen that preachers and churchgoers, producers and consumers of liturgies, homilies, and sermons – that is, Elizabethans – related
biblical types to Elizabethan persons and events
the one destroyed in the devastating air raid of 1940. In using the
traditional form of the Requiem Mass Britten was fulfilling the requirements
of a public act of remembrance and reconciliation 3 but by interweaving the Latin liturgy with nine poems, or
extracts of poems, by the poet who had done most to convey the horror and
the pity of the First World War, Britten was making a more personal and, indeed,
of the community. Previous performance traditions were not discarded, but rather were preserved and appropriated for new purposes;
through representations and manipulations of women’s commemorative liturgy, female performance created historical continuity. At
the Celestines, performing women shaped histories that reconstructed
and prioritised the roles of women. Female bodies and practices
populated the sacred spaces of the priory and claimed territory
through the mapping of performance in image and text. These
echoes of female performance underline the lasting