Juvenile actors and humanitarian sentiment in the 1940s
heroic individuals to the administration of internationalorganisations:
in Piper the children are under John’s unofficial protection; in
Holliday the children are originally from an institution (an
orphanage) and must be processed by immigration services; in
Heavenly the children have presumably come to America under the
auspices of an official committee responsible for the adoption of war
poor case – was common, but this practice has now been ended. Fourth,
the FSB is engaged not just in investigating the cases, but in bringing the
prosecution and holding a number of the suspects in its own custody in
the FSB-controlled prison, Lefortovo, in Moscow. This lack of a separation of roles and responsibilities has been criticised by Western observers,
including the Council of Europe.
To summarise, internationalorganisations and human rights activists
have highlighted sixteen spy
's contribution shifted from a normative role to that of implementer. By actively taking part in interventions for humanitarian purposes, Mitterrand's various executives not only contributed to legitimising humanitarian intervention, but also considerably helped shape the way the international community implemented it.
The UN, the institutional framework chosen to intervene
First, in terms of the institutional framework chosen to intervene, France selected the UN and thus heavily contributed to the interventions the international
intervening, but rather to intervene differently, through multilateral organisations such as NATO and later the European Union instead of the UN.
France's troop contributions to internationalorganisations for humanitarian purposes, 1993–99
The will of the executives to intervene via the European Union is not surprising, for
benefit of Arab representatives was not only used with the aim of improving the GDR’s stance in the Middle East – but within internationalorganisations, too. During a meeting with the Head of the Economics Division of the League of Arab States, Minister Schwab emphasised that the two German states should be treated equally in the international arena – and in particular within the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, where the GDR was trying to attain the same status as the FRG. Schwab tried to push the Arab League representative on the issue of the West
agree that internationalorganisations have a key role to play in
the contemporary peace project, as Bertie Ahern underlines, saying that
a ‘synergy’ between supra-national institutions is vital since solutions to
contemporary peace problems ‘can only be achieved through collective
action by the international community as a whole’; or rather an effective
‘international framework’ as Hillary Clinton would have it.
Hillary Clinton further states that ‘peace and reconciliation begins,
not by eliminating differences, but by creating the ground of mutual
respect’; one way
of internationalorganisations, in front of a large multinational audience, to denounce the East German passivity and lack of interest on matters of restitutions to Israel – for example, when the GDR applied for membership of the UN’s Universal Postal Union. As the Union members were assessing the East German application, the Israeli representative took the floor, accusing that: ‘the Germany that today is applying … in no way conveys the image of a society that has undergone any essential moral change prior to returning among the civilized nations’. 61 Although
Internationalorganisations have started to take the need for local ownership of development more seriously, simultaneously increasing broad acknowledgement of the value of ‘the local’ in IR and development studies.
Including and valuing local discourses increases the complexity of the choreography of local and global actors. This complexity is evident as these actors move to navigate different approaches to peacebuilding, including questions of who leads or follows in diverse
… population dynamics – including levels of ‘disease’ – have now become strategically significant as well’ ( 2005 : 406). As a ‘strategically significant’ concern, HIV/AIDS has demanded a twofold political response. First, agencies like the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS and the World Health Organization are required to observe, gather data and produce knowledge about the epidemic. Second, they intervene on the basis of this knowledge, either by themselves or in tandem with other internationalorganisations, states and non-governmental organisations, in order to manage and
internationalorganisations like the World Bank. After all, ‘the
Vietnamese bureaucracy is well schooled in slogans’ (Templer 1998 , 148) and its stated
commitment to reform has been conducive to international cooperation.
Despite important regional and ethnic disparities and a growing income
differential (Luong 2003 ,
16), Vietnam’s success in reducing poverty since the 1990s makes it
attractive to aid agencies, which are keen to