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The United States, the two Chinas and the 1960 Squaw Valley Winter Olympics
Rachel Vaughan

The US, the two Chinas and the 1960 Winter Olympics 185 10 ‘Chinese rings’: the United States, the two Chinas and the 1960 Squaw Valley Winter Olympics Rachel Vaughan It is only relatively recently that scholars have begun to recognise the centrality of sport to the public diplomacy and soft power strategies of governments within the international arena.1 To a degree, this was partly the reluctance of Western governments to acknowledge the role of sport within their diplomatic arsenal. In contrast, the West’s Cold War adversary, the Soviet Union, began to

in Sport and diplomacy
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The choice in favour of quiet diplomacy, 1978
Umberto Tulli

After the CSCE review conference in Belgrade, the Carter administration modified its policy toward the Soviet Union. With the relevant exception of protests at the conclusion of the trials against activists of the Moscow-based Helsinki Group, the human rights initiative was confined to quiet diplomacy and private channels. 1 Historians tend to disagree on the rationale for such a change. Some have argued that Cuban and Soviet interventions in Africa dominated bipolar affairs. Accordingly, many have argued that there was no longer room for détente, nor for a

in A precarious equilibrium
Open Access (free)
Elana Wilson Rowe

contested and enthusiastically marshalled by actors seeking to promote a particular perspective on the region in the everyday diplomacy of the region. Reasserting the peaceful Arctic frame in Iqaluit in 2015 was an important message about the commitment of the Arctic states to governing the region peacefully  –​and primarily amongst themselves. Furthermore, understanding when broader power relations, as manifested in regional framings, are at stake renders more understandable moments that otherwise seem to be ‘policy storms in a teacup’, when the importance of immediate

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Thomas Robb

as natural points to be debated amongst allies. It is 06_Strained_partnership_210-220.indd 211 06/11/2013 13:55 212 A strained partnership? within this context that US–UK differences on international diplomacy can be properly understood. Britain’s future role In the opinion of the Nixon White House, several aspects of Heath’s foreign policy were regrettable. Nixon had enthusiastically welcomed Heath’s election in June 1970, believing that he would reverse Britain’s global decline – a point which he felt had only undermined US interests because ‘the United

in A strained partnership?
Ayla Göl

relations in the east? The second section will draw our attention to the use of modern diplomacy between Ankara and Moscow. On the one hand, the c­ orrespondence between the two newly emerging regimes helps us to understand the main concerns of the two sides. On the other hand, Kemal’s correspondence with Kazım Karabekir, the commander of the Fifteenth Army Corps on the Caucasian front, and Bekir Sami, Minister for Foreign Affairs, demonstrates the process of decision-­making in Turkish foreign policy. The third section critically explores the consequences of the Treaty

in Turkey facing east
Carla Konta

for Party members, and admission of foreigners, stressed the report, were ‘all point[ing] to a general liberalization.’ While partly inaccurate and partly overestimating the chance for the regime’s prompt liberalization, Project TROY emphasized how the United States should give Yugoslavia ‘every possible support in developing an economic and political life independent of Russia.’ 7 The third aspect of US involvement in Yugoslavia – its public diplomacy strategy and soft-power policies – worked to increase Yugoslav orientation, especially in ‘official circles

in US public diplomacy in socialist Yugoslavia, 1950–70
Anuschka Tischer

1 The role of subsidies in seventeenth-century French foreign relations and their European context Anuschka Tischer The focus of this chapter is on the notion and practice of subsidies in French politics and diplomacy in the seventeenth century. It begins, however, with some general observations on the subject concerning the notion and practice of subsidies to demonstrate what I see as the desiderata, relevant issues, and methodological problems. I then continue with a short overview of the French practice of subsidies in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
The Muscovy Company and Giles Fletcher, the elder (1546–1611)

This book tells the story of English relations with Russia, from the 'strange and wonderfull discoverie' of the land and Elizabeth I's correspondence with Ivan the Terrible, to the corruption of the Muscovy Company and the Elizabethan regime's censorship of politically sensitive representations of Russia. Focusing on the life and works of Giles Fletcher, the elder, ambassador to Russia in 1588, it explores two popular themes in Elizabethan history: exploration, travel and trade and late Elizabethan political culture. The book draws together and analyses the narratives of travel, the practicalities of trade and the discourses of commonwealth and corruption that defined English encounters in late sixteenth century. In the early stages of English mercantile contact with Russia, diplomatic negotiations took shape in the wake of developing trade relations and were made up of a series of ad hoc embassies by individuals. The embassy of Giles Fletcher in 1588, however, represented a change in diplomatic tack. Fletcher's writing of Russia reveals some shared Elizabethan images of the land on Christendom's periphery and fundamentally how Russia was used as a site to reflect on themes of cultural development, commonwealth, trade and colonisation. The extensive use in Fletcher's text of the language of anti-popery points to resonances with the anxieties that riddled the political and religious consciences of late Elizabethan England. His work engaged in cajoling the commonwealth to think with the image of Russia.

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Iver B. Neumann

While the previous chapter discussed the emergence of visual diplomacy and its present variations, this chapter further pursues the phenomenon of presentability. In order to perform as a diplomat, you have to represent a polity, and you have to be presentable. To represent, you have to be present where the polity itself is absent (Constantinou 1994 , 1996 , Hennings 2011 ). To be presentable, you have to be ‘clean, smart, or decent enough to be seen in public’, as the Oxford English Dictionary has it. 1 Indeed, in languages closely related to English

in Diplomatic tenses
Thomas Robb

US had also undergone a re-assessment of its global position and the Nixon administration had reconfigured US foreign policy with its détente agenda. The Paris Peace Accords (January 1973) officially ended the US’s involvement in Vietnam, and superpower détente had resulted in the opening to the PRC and the establishment of US–Soviet bilateral diplomacy. 1973, therefore, presented new circumstances in which US–UK relations would be conducted, and it was the adaptation to this that created a number of problems for US–UK relations.2 First, Britain’s membership of the

in A strained partnership?