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Abstract only
Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert, and Jonathan Mackman

there was a tangible sense of Englishness by which they could navigate such a tricky path. Nationality had different connotations in the Middle Ages from today, and was not by any means always the primary marker of social identity. Nevertheless, national attributes were clearly understood as a very important element of a shared culture. In recent generations, medieval historians have been increasingly preoccupied with the ‘idea of England’: that is, with the political-cultural concept that framed both the development of the English state and

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
Nicola Ginsburgh

considering the workers’ affairs the union knows no nationality’, low rates of Portuguese membership at Beira were attributed to the fundamental temperamental differences between ‘men of British stock and those of “Latin races”. The former are phlegmatic; the latter volatile and passionate’. This supposed Latin passion was seen as anathema to the rationality of trade unionism. 51 Although Afrikaners were an important part of the settler colonial project in Rhodesia, in the first half of the twentieth century the ‘race question’ in southern Africa most readily referred to

in Class, work and whiteness
Abstract only
Leslie C. Green

potential recognition as are the regular forces. Mercenaries Until the adoption of Protocol I no attempt was made to discriminate among the members of an armed force on the basis of their nationality or the motives which lead them to join that force, whether those motives are ideological or mercenary. 70 In view, however, of the number of mercenaries who enrolled in colonial armies

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Johanna Gondouin, Suruchi Thapar-Björkert, and Ingrid Ryberg

affective and biological labour and situating the notion of motherhood in a larger context of issues of reproductive work, the series offers a rich and complex reflection on the current debate about the global division of reproductive work across axes of gender, race, nationality, migration status, and class (Colen, 1995; Ginsburg and Rapp, 1995; Parreñas, 2000; Shanley, 2001; Vora, 2008; Yngvesson, 2010). However, while critics have recognised motherhood, misogyny, sexism, and gendered violence as central themes in China Girl, surprisingly few comments address the racial

in The power of vulnerability
Organising the move
Angela McCarthy

financial assistance. This chapter examines the ways migrants depended on these two sources of finance and looks too at the range of preparations they undertook having elected to migrate. In doing so the chapter relies not solely on migrant testimonies, but on a range of shipping sources to assess claims made in personal accounts. It broadly argues that similar elements operated in the process of organising migration, even though certain specifics differed according to the nationality of migrants and their chosen destination. The role of personal networks If conditions at

in Personal narratives of Irish and Scottish migration, 1921–65
The Baghdadi Jewish community, 1845-1931
Chiara Betta

traces the Baghdadis’ relationship with the British, focusing on a number of interdependent aspects: nationality, Anglicisation, and social interaction. The main aim of this chapter is to define the ambiguous positioning of the Baghdadis vis-à-vis the British, and to show that their marginality did not represent, as a whole, a significant hindrance to their sojourn in the Shanghai foreign settlements. The gates of the Middle Kingdom open This exploration of the trade diaspora of Baghdadi Jews to India and China starts

in New frontiers
Arthur & George
Peter Childs

When is a door not a door? When it’s ajar. Anon Arthur & George is a book about unlikely pairings and questionable divisions. It is a fiction about truth and relativity, perception and rationality, fear and authority. Drawing on the real-life investigation by Arthur Conan Doyle of a miscarriage of justice, it explores the borderlines of nationality and ethnicity, evidence and imagination, doubt and faith, fact and fiction, endings and beginnings. Above all, it underlines the power of

in Julian Barnes
Graham Harrison

nationalism. Modern nationalism is, as all agree, in pivotal senses invented but, pace Anderson (1991), the means and forms of invention are manifold: Africa campaigns constitute one facet of Britain’s ‘imagining’. Furthermore, they rely on a morality which is a mixture of sentiments of national grandeur and empathy for Africans. In this sense, these campaigns compose an imperial7 tradition that has as its dual premises a narcissistic view of Britishness and a projection of British moral virtue onto Africa. A self-perception of a nationality uniquely shaped as ‘possessors

in The African presence
Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert, and Jonathan Mackman

limited only to defending the rights of native-born ‘English’. Instead of developing a separate code for the Normans, then, the law simply adapted and expanded to take on certain of the northern French customs that the invaders regarded as important to their needs. 1 Nationality showed up most visibly in the period after the Norman Conquest of 1066 in the process known as presentment of Englishry. If it was proved that a murder victim was Norman, then the local community bore collective responsibility and had to pay a penalty (the murdrum fine) to the king. 2 In

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
The role of pronatalism in the development of Czech childcare and reproductive health policies
Hana Hašková and Radka Dudová

assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). We trace the framings that were used at different points in time by different actors in public debates, paying special attention to pronatalist framing. We understand framing as a way in which information or an issue is presented in the public discourse to promote a certain problem, definition, or solution. We investigate how the pronatalist framing has been used in policy debates and how it has affected the bodily and sexual citizenship of various women, non-heterosexual people, and persons with ‘other’ nationalities or

in Intimacy and mobility in an era of hardening borders