understand what role space played in shaping alternative experiences of democracy and autonomy in the occupied
squares of our cities (especially during the Occupy movement
period), we focus on the experience and practices of Zapatista
politics in faraway Mexican Chiapas? What if, through studying
the building of autonomy in Chiapas, we can better understand
insurgent assemblies in Athens, London, New York, Hong Kong,
Istanbul, Paris, Tunis, Cairo, Rio …?
Space matters: space does not simply reflect or sustain existing relations between people. Space gives form to these
Alex Schafran, Matthew Noah Smith, and Stephen Hall
Over the past two chapters we have worked to develop an analytical framework for analysing reliance systems and spatial contracts. Certain assumptions and ideologies about systems can get in the way of developing healthy agreements, which is why we call for a system-centred politics, as opposed to a politics-centred system. When we start to see systems through settlements and vice versa, we also see more clearly other barriers, divides between space and place, and those between the formal and the informal. This much, at least, is required to realize
Inclusive urban energy transformations in spaces of urban
Federico Caprotti, Jon Phillips, Saska Petrova, Stefan Bouzarovski, Stephen Essex, Jiska de Groot, Lucy Baker, Yachika Reddy, and Peta Wolpe
generation and supply of energy is essential to continued economic growth, while the associated emissions lie at the core of debates about climate change. The associated aspiration for the transformation to be inclusive and ‘just’ within society adds another layer of complexity and tension to the process. In South Africa, the historical legacy of apartheid, political governance structures and capacity, the form and structure of urban areas, rural-to-urban in-migration and societal attitudes have a fundamental influence on the path that a low-carbon energy transformation
is going global. All of us are seeking to make sense of, and manage, change.
The key to the management of change is reform. The pace of reform has
to match the pace of change. Societies that are open, flexible, able easily
to distinguish between fundamental values, which they must keep and
policies, which they must adapt, will prosper. Those that move too slowly
or are in hock to vested interests or what I have elsewhere called forces of
conservatism, reacting negatively to change, will fall behind. (Tony Blair,
2000a: 1, Speech at the World Economic Forum
Atom – Steve Hanson
This late 1960s image of Hulme is so powerful. The Victorian
houses in the image are long gone, but so are the Hulme Crescents
which replaced them in the early 1970s. The overstated story that
Manchester is a co-operative city full of socialist radicals has a flipside: that Manchester’s real revolution was industrial, not political.
Friedrich Engels, in the 1840s, in his father’s factories, saw men
referring to other men as ‘hands’, and doing so to their faces.
When he saw this he noted the conditions that forced socialism,
various benefits to even the mere exposure to nature (in a picture, through
a window or by sitting in a park), i.e. a passive consumption of nature, if you will.
The ‘practice’ of nature or deep involvement with it (as defined by Kaplan)
through hiking, protecting, gardening and so on, produces an additional set of
advantages. Advantages of ‘practising nature’ include exercise, community life, political development and place-identity. This list presents only a few of the ways
people experience nature, but we will get back to this topic later.
Despite these advantages
‘Irishness’, eviscerates the
images and iconography of the Celtic Tiger, a period of economic growth in
Ireland that ran from 1995 to 2007.
McCarthy’s work reflects the growing dissonance around the national
narrative, as well as the groundswell of political dissatisfaction that characterises the contemporary scene in Ireland. Tellingly, while occasionally framing
Ireland as South America or Asia, his work suggests that new perspectives, if
not new maps, are required to evaluate Irish society; the turbulent qualities
of the present call for new ways of seeing. Following
Postcolonialism and ecology in the work of Tim Robinson
The field of Irish cultural studies has yet to exploit fully the critical and analytical resources of ecological criticism. Indeed very little sustained and enabling
historical or critical writing has emanated from the field that might productively
contribute to international conversations on the political and cultural implications of global environmental change.There have always been creative and critical
engagements with the Irish landscape – a trend partly occasioned by the country’s
protracted history of colonialism (a prime concern of ecological criticism
the complexity of the world to manageable proportions. Even if we acknowledge that they are simplifications, we approach social inquiry with a predefined lexicon that allows us to find ‘gentrification’, ‘neoliberalism’, ‘planetary urbanism’, ‘settler colonialism’ or the ‘post-political’ (to highlight some of the most popular concepts in critical social inquiry today) because those are the things we expect to find. If we use large datasets and analytical models, we look for predictable patterns to find the universal causal processes behind complex activities such as
Maps as objects 225
From critical to object-oriented cartography
The critical cartography which arose in the 1990s (Crampton and Krygier,
2006) approach maps as texts (Harley, 1989), sign systems (Wood, 1993) and
social constructions (Crampton, 2001). In response to the dominance of the
communication model, which thought of maps purely as neutral tools to convey
geographical information, critical cartography sought to demonstrate how these
representations were in fact bound up with politics of power and knowledge.
Thus, building on Foucault and Derrida (Harley, 1989