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Repellent Fence and trans-Indigenous time-space at the US–Mexico border
Caren Kaplan

exist heterotemporally in material and creative forms in Postcommodity’s work. While land plays a major role in arguments for Indigenous sovereignty and reparations, Mishuana Goeman reminds us that land should not be reified on settler colonial terms. Rather, Goeman argues, land can best retain its political vitality for Indigenous social movements by ‘(re)opening’ its meaning beyond confined boundaries or property per se to metaphorical or aesthetic practices. 24 Thus, she writes, ‘Indigenous peoples make place by relating both personal and communal experiences and

in Drone imaginaries
Drone swarming and hypersonic weapons
James Johnson

’s ability to autonomously detect and cue precision missile munitions, especially in cluttered and complex environments. This weakness is caused partly by the poorly understood nature of AI’s ability to mimic human vision and cognition. David Deutsch, “Creative Blocks,” Aeon October 3, 2012, https://aeon.co/essays/how-close-are-we-to-creating-artificial-intelligence (accessed September 10, 2019). 83 Long and Green, “Stalking the Secure Second Strike: Intelligence, Counterforce

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
James Johnson

deliberate, not unintentional on the part of the initiator (State A). 34 For analysis on this point, see Martin Libicki, “A hacker way of warfare,” in Nicholas D. Wright (ed.), AI, China, Russia, and the Global Order: Technological, Political, Global, and Creative Perspectives , Strategic Multilayer Assessment Periodic Publication (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, December 2018), pp. 128–132. 35 AI experts have proven that even when data appears accurate

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
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Managing an AI future
James Johnson

operators to better understand the skills needed to execute particular (offensive and defensive) operations and to manage better system vulnerabilities, adversarial exploitation, stress-testing, and social engineering challenges. 57 Examples of cybersecurity-centered measures that might be explored to pre-empt and mitigate some of the risks posed by AI-augmented cyberweapons include the following, albeit non-exhaustive, list. 58 First, coordinating AI-simulated war games, red-teaming creative thinking exercises, and

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
The nineteenth century and the rise of mass participation
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

natural feature of human society, but infused the term with at least three different meanings: First, there were the liberal authors, for whom competition was beneficial for society: it was society’s dynamic and creative force. They adopted Adam Smith’s position that people’s competitive nature is regulated by some natural law which applies equally to civil society and to the society of nations. Second, there were conservative authors, who conceived of competition as a mortal struggle. Theorists like Burke, Malthus, Metternich and Bismarck maintained that this

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

the Great Migrations. It included Asia Minor, the Balkan peninsula and scattered parts of Italy. Byzantium was Christian in religion and Greek in language and culture. Geographically, it guarded the Straits of the Bosporus; spiritually, it guarded the Graeco-Roman tradition in its orthodox, Christian version. Commerce and navigation were continued on much the same level as in ancient times. Byzantine scholarship was not as creative and flexible as in the classical age, but it was still an advanced civilization. For most Christians, the Byzantine emperor represented

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
The case of the Group for Social Dialogue
Anca Mihaela Pusca

to be developed in much of post-communist Central and Eastern Europe.10 The idea that civil society was the easy solution to just about every bump in the road to democratization caused all creative efforts to go into figuring out how this could be achieved. The idealization of civil society and the role that it can play in bringing about harmony in society conveniently helped to simplify and legitimize a series of international and national practices, including important economic and political reforms as well as international interventions in transitioning states

in Revolution, democratic transition and disillusionment
Peace-building in south-eastern Europe
Emil Kirchner and James Sperling

Article 308 is known as the ‘residual powers clause’ and has been used to empower the creation of various agencies and initiatives that were neither originally envisioned by nor incorporated into the Treaties. Accordingly, rather than use Article 308 as a ‘codification of implied powers doctrine in its instrumental sense’, it has been employed in a creative and radical fashion. As

in EU security governance
Paul Midford

the foreign ministers of Japan, China and South Korea, where the final decision was reached to establish the APT summit. 17 Although the APT, with a regular Japan–ASEAN summit as one part, undoubtedly served Japan’s national interest, 18 it is also clear that this represented a polite and creative ASEAN rejection of Japan’s bid to re-establish a special ASEAN–Japan relationship. As Michael Green notes, ‘Though not exactly what Tokyo had in mind, Japan nevertheless joined the first official ASEAN Plus Three meeting in late 1997’ (Green

in Japan's new security partnerships
P. Terrence Hopmann

international organisations view the creation of this position at the Helsinki Summit in 1992 as one of the most creative decisions taken by the OSCE in its 25-year history, as the office has provided a function not found in most other global or regional international institutions. Supported by a small staff, the HCNM provides early warning of brewing conflicts and intervenes in such situations where he deems it appropriate in order to assist the parties to find non-violent solutions to their disputes. Under the mandate given to the HCNM by the Helsinki Summit, he is only

in Limiting institutions?