[-]ended intergovernmental group of experts to study practical means of promoting full respect for and compliance with that law’. 11
The Intergovernmental Group of Experts for the Protection of War Victims, thus convened in Geneva in January 1995, adopted a number of recommendations, among them that:
the International Committee of the Red Cross be invited to prepare, with the assistance of experts on international humanitarian law representing various geographical regions and different legal systems, and in consultation with experts from governments and internationalorganisations
(2018). It consists of an extensive database of 606 interviews for context and a focus on data from an overall number of around twenty semi-structured interviews carried out in Tumaco.
To ensure triangulation of data sources, interviewees included community leaders, clerics, civil society representatives, staff members of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and internationalorganisations, ex-combatants, indigenous leaders, members of state forces and government officials (see Idler 2019 : 347). This data
it lowers the costs compared with acting unilaterally (Williamson 1978, 1985
Three assumptions form the backbone of the rational choice institutionalist approach (see e.g. Hall and Taylor 1996 ; Pollack 1997 ). First, states are treated as the primary political actors. Although this does not imply that internationalorganisations, such as the UN, and their bureaucracies are seen as ‘passive mechanisms with no independent agendas of their own’ (Barnett and Finnemore 1999 : 705), they have traditionally not been
place in the European concert of powers, seemed to prove that theoretical point. Borchard conjoined his realist critique of international law with an argument for American isolationism. American involvement with internationalorganisations and treaty regimes was hazardous, he argued, because it would drag the US into international conflicts in which it had no stake. The alternative that he promoted was a return to the balance of power politics of the pre-1914 era, with the US intervening abroad only when its vital interests were threatened. Unlike other classical
‘there was money’ meant that no
preparation or planning was made with regard to Greece’s principal problem,
the need both to fund and to reverse the exponential growth in the deficit.
This problem was no secret: it had been noted in the reports of a range of
internationalorganisations, in the commentary of the foreign media and by
certain sections within PASOK.3
Prime Minister G. Papandreou’s programme statement in Parliament on
16 October 2009 was a repetition of his pre-election promises. There was no
indication of substantive developments in terms of policy, nor of
found new applications in the peacekeeping scholarship, while peacekeeping has become a source of conceptual development and empirical innovation in the IR literature. This is an overdue development, considering the political and material resources that member states, internationalorganisations, and civil society actors have invested in peacekeeping.
This volume analyses UN peacekeeping as an international institution in the broad meaning of the term. International institutions have been defined as ‘persistent and connected sets of rules
support from the European Union at a time when the PKK's main adversary, the Turkish state, was engaged in accession talks and had to accommodate EU interests.
Recognition is an action performed for others to witness. Recognition does not just affect the actor and the target of action, but a range of external audiences, as each case studied in the volume demonstrates. The audiences for recognition include not only internationalorganisations and states, but also governments, civil society and other armed non-state actors. Armed non-state actors
Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.
that internationalism embraced modernity. These modern features are further
underlined by secularists’ confidence about the ultimate triumph of rationalism and by the Catholic response to modernity, which involved the creation of
internationalorganisations and events.
The First World War produced ruptures at various levels, as evidenced by
the consequences for socialists and pacifists. While these movements had
portrayed themselves as transnational, they struggled to uphold and develop
such links in the face of military conflict. Despite their
. It is
distinct because it differs in its approach from other instruments and
their monitoring bodies, regional and international. It is located principally in the dialogue with States parties and Concluding Observations
that grow the State party’s obligations incrementally, the guiding and
interpretive general recommendations that at times stretch the provisions of the treaty, the innovations in procedure that indicate that the
monitoring process itself is subject to the doctrine, the integration of
civil society voices at local and internationalorganisational