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Autopilot, neglect or worse?
Nick Bisley

Asia. The Pivot to Asia, sold publicly as an emphasis on the most important region in the world, was ultimately about ensuring that long-term goal in the face of transformations caused by the rapid rise in wealth and influence of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Whether or not one agreed with the Obama critique that Bush had neglected the region – and many did not 9 – the underlying imperative for US security policy was that China’s dramatic growth was fundamentally changing the region. Even though the United States wanted to retain the basic pattern of Asia

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
The impact of Paris Université Club’s US tours and the individual in sports diplomacy
Lindsay Sarah Krasnoff

Republic of China (PRC) used sports exchanges and visits in the 1950s and 1960s to build friendly ties with countries within the Eastern bloc, as well as newly decolonised Africa. Such missions, she argues, served to shore up the PRC’s legitimacy in the eyes of the international community at a time when it vied with the Republic of China (Taiwan) to be viewed as the internationally recognised government of China. There was thus a conscious shift by many governments to incorporate sports exchanges, visits and competitions to cultivate their power via global public opinion

in Sport and diplomacy
When the talking stops
Carole Gomez

participation in the Games to protest the presence of a delegation from Taiwan. The People’s Republic of China would only return to the Games in 1980 at the Lake Placid Winter Olympics, seven years after having taken its place in the United Nations Security Council at the expense of Taiwan, and having secured from the IOC that the Taiwanese team would be known as Chinese Taipei. Analysing the 1956 boycotts, Lara Killick cites a ‘desire for change’ as critical to these countries’ decision making.30 The Melbourne triple boycott illustrates how three distinct incidents prompted

in Sport and diplomacy
Concluding thoughts on sport and diplomacy
Aaron Beacom and J. Simon Rofe

basketball player Michael Jordan, and the opportunity taken by the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to showcase China through the 2008 Olympic Games. The Chinese leadership evaluated this sufficiently successful to warrant further endeavours such as the reinvention of the Chinese Super League football tournament from 2012, and the successful bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics also to be hosted in Beijing. It is important for those engaged in sport and diplomacy as practitioners or analysts to avoid taking an essentialist approach to sport while at the same time recognising

in Sport and diplomacy
Strategic reflections
Michael Reiterer

Service (EEAS). (2016). Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the EU on the Award Rendered in the Arbitration between the Republic of the Philippines and the People’s Republic of China (15/07/2016), news/news/2016/2016071502_en.htm, accessed online 19 May 2018. European External Action Service (EEAS). (2017a). Joint Statement on the 40th Anniversary of the Establishment of ASEAN–EU Dialogue Relations, Brussels, 06/08/2017 – 15:52, UNIQUE ID: 170806_2, headquarters

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific
Antal Berkes

of the lawful rights of the People’s Republic of China in the United Nations’, the established practice of the United Nations has been to use the term ‘Taiwan, Province of China’ when a reference to ‘Taiwan’ in United Nations Secretariat documents. 53 However, even the neutral denominations ‘Taiwan’ or ‘Kosovo’ are used in United Nations documents, with a usual footnote to the United Nations’ official position about the de facto regime’s non-recognition (‘In accordance with United Nations terminology, reference to Taiwan in the present document should read

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law
Elena Atanassova-Cornelis

politics largely defines regional international relations. Since the late 2000s the thinking of Japanese strategists has been dominated by geopolitical concerns, especially by those associated with the People’s Republic of China’s (PRC) security behaviour in the region and the sustainability of the US military presence. One of the aspects of China’s rise as a great power, which has led to concerns across Asia and in the US (but much less so in Europe), has been the strengthening of its military power. Linked to this, as stated in the 2016 Pentagon report, has been

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific
Navigating between trouble and promise
Gustaaf Geeraerts

and its preference for highly institutionalised multilateralism. In this vein, relations with China and other emerging powers were largely constructed from the belief that the latter should adapt their international political norms to the European standards. Normative convergence figured as the starting point for developing relations with those countries. Europe’s policy towards China was mainly one of conditional co-operation with normative convergence as its final aim. The EU was prepared to help the People’s Republic of China (PRC), to invest in the development

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific
Abstract only
Thomas R. Seitz

the course of this competition the USA strove to develop and promote ‘showpieces’, successful examples of countries that chose the non-communist path. These examples (most early US efforts focused on India) would outshine the accomplishments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Introduction 11 Republics (USSR) and the People’s Republic of China (PRC), and through this approach Washington hoped to discredit the communist idea and undermine the widely held belief that communism was the wave of the future in Asia. However, this competition involved far more than a

in The evolving role of nation-building in US foreign policy
The Baghdadi Jewish community, 1845-1931
Chiara Betta

, the grandeur of their lifestyles, their Westernised tastes and habits, could not have been greater. Whilst these paupers considered Shanghai one of a number of possible destinations, for many of the merchants and their families Shanghai had become their permanent home. Were it not for the abrupt change prompted by the establishment of the People’s Republic of China we might still find there the descendants of some of the earliest settlers. Nowadays only buildings such as Edward Ezra’s mansion (used as headquarters by the Shanghai

in New frontiers